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Английские достопримечательности и знаменитости.
Houses of Parliament
The bridge was designed by Horace Jones, he is a swing bridge 244 m long with two set at the intermediate support towers 65 meters high central span between the towers, length 61 m, divided into two lifting wings, to skip the courts may be raised at an angle of 83 ° .Each of the more than tysyachetonnyh wing is equipped with a counterbalance, minimizing the effort required to dissolve and allow the bridge in one minute. In motion is a passage from the hydraulic system, water initially, with a working pressure of 50 bar (750 psi ) . Water pumped by two steam engines, total 360 hp. The system was manufactured by «WG Armstrong Mitchell». In 1974, the system has been completely updated - Oil Hydraulics has an electric drive.
Pedestrian bridge construction provided for the possibility to cross the bridge even during divorce flight. For this purpose, besides the usual sidewalk located on the edge of the carriageway in the middle of the pedestrian walkway were constructed connecting the towers at a height of 44 meters .To get to the gallery could be by stairs located inside the towers. Since 1982, the gallery is used as a museum and observation deck.
Only for the construction of towers and pedestrian galleries took more than 11 thousand tons of steel. To better protect metal structures from corrosion, the tower was lined with stone, the architectural style of the structure is defined as the Gothic. Complete construction costs amounted to 1.184 million pounds.
History In the second half of the 19th century because of increased equestrian and pedestrian traffic in the port area in the East end of the issue of building a new crossing East "London Bridge". Built in 1870, the Tower of Zabvèj tunnel as Metro served a short time, and eventually became used only for pedestrian traffic.
In 1876, a Committee was appointed to find a solution to the problem. The contest was organized, which was granted over 50 projects. Only in 1884, was declared the winner and it was decided to construct a bridge proposed by a member of the jury, Jones. After his death in 1887, the construction was led by John Wolfe-Barry.
Construction work began June 21, 1886, and continued for 8 years. June 30, 1894, the bridge was inaugurated by the Prince of Wales Edward and his wife Princess Alexandra.
Long pedestrian bridge Gallery acquired slavu muster Pocket thieves. For this reason, in 1910, the galleries were closed. They only have reopened the year 1982 and used as a Museum and a lookout platform.
Houses of Parliament .
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Engl. Formed of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) is the supreme legislative body in the UK and Royal Overseas Territories. It is headed by a British monarch. Bicameral Parliament consists of the upper House called the House of Lords, and the lower House called the House of Commons. The House of Lords is not selected, it includes the Lords Spiritual (the senior clergy of the Anglican Church) and secular Lords (members of the Peerage). The House of Commons, on the contrary, the democratically elected House. The House of Lords and the House of Commons gather in different rooms of the Palace of Westminster in London. By custom, all Ministers, including the Prime Minister, chosen exclusively from the whole of Parliament.
Parliament evolved from the ancient Royal Council. In theory, power comes not from Parliament but from "Queen-in-Parliament" (Engl. the Crown in Formed "— literally," the Crown in Parliament "). It is often said that only the Queen-in-Parliament is the supreme power, although this is quite a controversial assertion. Currently derives also from the democratically elected House of Commons; The monarch acts as a representative figure, and the power of the House of Lords drastically limited.
The British Parliament is often popularly referred to as "the mother of all parliaments", as well as legislative bodies in many countries, and especially the Member countries of the British Commonwealth is built on the model.
Stonehenge (Engl. Stonehenge, letters. "Stone Henge") is specific to the list of world heritage site by the construction of megalithic stone (stone circle) on the Solsberijskoj plain in the County of Wiltshire (England). Situated about 130 km southwest of London, about 3.2 kilometres west of Èjmsberi and 13 km north of Salisbury.
One of the most famous archaeological sites in the world, Stonehenge is composed of earthworks surrounding a circular masonry buildings of large standing stones. It is located in the heart of the dense set of Neolithic and bronze age monuments in England. The monument and its surroundings were included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1986, together with Avebury. Stonehenge handed over to the British Crown in the Office of "English Heritage", while coming around belong to the national trestu.
Stonehenge is a world famous megalithic structure on the Solsberijskoj plain in England, located about 130 km southwest of London.
Description of Stonehenge stones form a circle with a diameter of 30 33 m. these stones were 4.1 m height 2.1 m wide and weighs about 25 tons (!). On top of them is based on the stones-jumpers at a length of approximately 3.2 m and a width of 1 m and a thickness of 0.8 m so that the top jumpers are 4.9 m above ground level. Stones are preserved through a system of Groove and tongue.
Within this circle stood five trilitov , forming "a horseshoe"-these huge stones weigh up to 50 tons each (!!!).
The creation time of Stonehenge, on the basis of radiocarbon dated Stonehenge construction approximately 2965 year to RC (±0.2%).
Appointment of Stonehenge in VI – VII century people began to ask questions: who built it? Also nobody knows why it was built.
To this question there are several answers: is an astronomical observatory of ancient scholars — Pagan Cathedral or sacred haven on the blessed land of God — the Temple of the Sun, is a place of ritual ceremonies and burials/offerings — a symbol of power of prehistoric priests.
On the construction at Stonehenge were transported from Wales, 250 miles (!!!), 80 stones bluish-grey sandstone, each weighing 4 tons, and posted double ring.
From about the year 2665 to RC bluish-gray stones were removed and replaced by huge 25-ton sarsen there were in the 70s. These blocks were in any way transferred from Marlborough downs, an area behind the 12 miles to the North, taken across the river and raised on the steepness (!!!). They were then rated so that they formed a Ring consisting of vertical stones connected by horizontal filling with stone slabs. These plates are carefully otesany so that when they formed the right circle, and the reliability of soedinemy with vertical pillars, with the assistance of a friend any plotniku Castle-thorn in the nest. Many of these stones are so far that allows us to imagine Stonehenge in its original form.
Then there followed an interruption in 400 years, after which the builders, for some unknown reasons, decided to move us in an even more grandiose stones of Stonehenge. Inside the Rings Sarsen erected by Horseshoe five pairs of huge rocks, United top transverse horizontal slabs. The age of these giant stone gate (Trilitonov) with a height of 4.3 m, which is most famous for Stonehenge, is calculated from 2270, the Stones are set such that if you join their lines, they intersect at points of sunrise in the days of summer and winter solstices. At certain times of the year with the aid of these lines you can calculate the position of the moon on the horizon.
Four basic stone, placed on a circle form a rectangle and serve as approximate markers to track 19-year-old annual cycle of the moon.
Charles Spencer Chaplin (Charles Spenser Chaplin) was born April 16, 1889 in London, the son of artists music - hall, and in seven years, sang and danced on stage. Charlie's childhood was poor, hungry, ill and lonely, like most children of that time. It is experienced in these years later became the basis for many great comedies. Charlie left home at sixteen and found work in the theater. In 1907 he was admitted to the famous mime troupe F. Carnot. Later, in 1913, while touring troupe in Amerikemolodogo artist Mack Sennett said the producer, offered a contract with film company 'Keystone' and asked to be removed. The first film was Chaplin's comic strip 'earning a living' (1914), and in the movie 'Baby racing in Venice' (1914), he in his vpervyepoyavilsya soon became his traditional appearance. His thirteenth film 'is exposed to rain' (1914), Chaplin had already shot himself. In just one this year Charlie Chaplin starred in more than 34 films and has become widely known as one of talantliveyshihkomikov American cinema, which allowed him to quickly win the creative independence. The best acting and directing the work of this period are pictures of `Rolling Stone`, `Pilgrim`, `Kid`, `Gold Rush '. Deeper traktovkaobraza Charlie established actor and director in the lyrical tragicomedies `Circus' and 'city lights'. New creative achievements of Charlie Chaplin was a brilliant anti-fascist farce 'The Great Dictator'. Chaplin departure to Europe in 1952, at the height of McCarthyism, which coincided with the release of the screens yet another landmark in the creation of an outstanding artist tape - `Lights` ramp (1952), apparently - the melodrama, but in essence - a philosophical novel about the life and death. Arriving in Europe, Charlie Chaplin settled in Switzerland, in BEB, where he lived until his death. Subsequently, in Britain, he put two more of his film - eccentric satire `King of New - York 'and' romantic comedy A Countess from Hong Kong '.
Pablo Picasso was born October 25, 1881 in Malaga, Spain anadaluzskoy province. At the baptism of Picasso's full name was Pablo Diego Jose Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Crispin Krispinyano Santisima de la Trinidad Ruiz Picasso - that the Spanish custom, was a succession of names of saints and relatives of the family .Picasso - the surname of the mother that he took and Pablo, as the father's name seemed too ordinary, to the same father by Picasso, Jose Ruiz, was himself an artist.
Pablo showed early talent for drawing.Already at age 7, he learned from his father's technique of drawing, which commissioned him to build upon first legs of pigeons in his paintings. But one day, entrusting to add thirteen Pablo pretty big still life, he was so struck by the technique of his son that, according to legend,threw himself to painting.
At the age of 13 years, Pablo Picasso, with a gleam entered the Barcelona Academy of Arts. In preparation for the exam, students usually take a month, Picasso left a week. He struck a commission for his skill and was admitted to the Academy despite his young age.Picasso's father together with his uncle decided to send Pablo in Madrid Academy "San Fernando", which was considered at that time the most advanced School of Art in Spain. So, Pablo, in 1897 at age 16 arrived in Madrid.However, studies in the School of Art did not last long, less than a year, and Pablo was captured by all the other delights of Madrid life, as well as studying the work impressed him then artists - Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya and El Greco in particular.
A collection of early works by Picasso in Barcelona, the Picasso Museum. The most famous of them: "First Communion" (1896) - a large painting depicting Picasso's sister Lola, "Self Portrait" (1896), "Portrait of Mother" (1896).As an adult and visit once the exhibition of children's drawings, Picasso said: "At their age I was drawing like Raphael, but it took me a lifetime to learn to paint like them."
During his studies in Madrid, Picasso made his first trip to Paris - then recognized by European capital of art. There he visited a few months without exception, museums, studying the great masters of painting: Delacroix, Toulouse-Lautrec, Van Gogh, Gauguin and many others.He also attracted the Phoenicians and Egyptians, art, Gothic sculpture, Japanese prints. Pablo was interested in everything. Then, in the first years of life in Paris, he met a collector and dealer Ambroise Vollard's paintings, poets Max Jacob and Guillaume Apollinaire, and many others.He visited again in Paris in 1901 and in 1902, and was finally moved there in 1904
William Turner was born in late April - early May 1775 in London's Covent Garden. Sam Turner called the date of his birth on April 23, which, however, is disputed by several researchers. The artist's father, William Turner, was a master at making wigs, but in the late 70s. opened a barbershop.In 1785, because of the severe situation in the family (his mother was mentally ill), Joseph William was sent to the London suburb of Brentford, where he lived with his uncle.
Back in Brentford, he showed an interest in visual arts.After attending school in the late 1780s he settled in London, where he worked with architects and surveyors, including to Thomas Malton. In December 1789 a 14-year-old Turner was admitted to the Royal Academy, his examiner Reynolds.At the academy he attended a recent lecture by Reynolds, who had a significant impact on Turner. Later the artist carefully examined the whole course of lectures the first president of the academy, dedicated to an idealistic direction in art.Just one year after receipt of the Turner watercolor work was exhibited at the annual exhibition of the Academy of Fine Arts. The first oil painting, which won the exhibition appeared at Turner in 1790. Subsequently, Turner is constantly exhibited at the Academy.From 1791 he worked as set designer in the "Pantheon of the Opera" on Oxford Street and worked part time, giving lessons.
Dido, the founder of Carthage (1815)
Turner carefully studied the old masters and contemporary artists.Copying another's work, he creatively reinterpret someone else's images, expressing his own vision. Particularly admired him Claude Lorrain: the words of a contemporary, seeing the picture of the "Sail the Queen of Sheba," Turner was unable to hold back the tears.The artist explained his reaction that he would never create anything like that. Over the years, Turner bequeathed his "Dido, the founder of Carthage," which he regarded as unsurpassed masterpiece, National Gallery on the condition that she hung next to the "Sail the Queen of Sheba."Turner studied carefully Lorrain paintings available to him, as well as albums with engravings Liber Veritatis. Engravings were made from drawings by French artist, refers to a mature period of creativity.Later, Turner made the album Liber Studiorum, executed in the same technique as the album of drawings Lorrain - mezzotint.Liber Studiorum was intended for use as a textbook for beginning artists and prints have been grouped by topic areas - painting the architectural, historical, pastoral (the mythological and everyday), landscapes, sea and mountain.
His first trip etyudnuyu Turner made in 1791. Later, he traveled with a camp palette and sketched in Europe (Switzerland, French Alps, Italy). After Turner left for more than ten thousand drawings and sketches.Materials from the album were hiking the artist as a basis for paintings and watercolors, on which he worked in London, referring sometimes to the very old to their designs.
Here is his picture