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Popularly 1(know) as Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth I ruled England for almost 45 years. 2(Live) in a period of much religious conflict and political plotting, (заговор) she not only 3(keep) her own power but also made England a more important country. Her reign 4(remember) as the Elizabethan Age.
Elizabeth 5(bear) in Greenwich, England, near London, on September 7, 1533. Her father 6(be) King Henry VIII. Elizabeth's mother, Anne Boleyn, was the second of the 7(king) six wives. Elizabeth had an older sister, Mary, who was the daughter of Henry's 8(one) wife.
Elizabeth was not even 3 years old when her mother 9(behead) at Henry's order. Henry then 10(marry) a third wife, who gave birth to a son named Edward.
Elizabeth 11(spend) her early years at Hatfield in a separate household from the king. Although Henry paid little attention to Elizabeth, he provided her with excellent tutors. She 12(instruct) in history and philosophy. She also learned several other languages, 13(include) Greek, Latin, French, and Italian.
Elizabeth’s early years
Henry died in 1547, 14(leave) the throne to Edward, his only son. But the boy king lived only until 1553. Upon his 15(die), Mary became queen. She at once 16(make) Catholicism the state religion. Suspecting her Protestant half-sister of plotting against her, Mary had Elizabeth 17(prison) in the Tower of London for two months.
Mary died on November 17, 1558, and Elizabeth 18(crown) Queen of England at the age of 25. Most of the English people had not liked Mary. They 19(welcome) the new queen.
She was both cautious (осторожный) and clever. She 20(understand) economics and was extremely 21(care) with government spending. She took the wise step of gathering a group of 22(experience) and trustworthy advisers.
During the first 30 years of Elizabeth’s reign, England built up 23(it) sea power. As trade (торговля) improved, 24(Englishman) gained (получать)self-confidence and sailed their ships across the seas to the West Indies. English smugglers (контрабандисты) made huge profits (доходы) by 25(sell) African slaves to the West Indies. John Hawkins, Sir Francis Drake, and other English sea captains also raided Spanish ships and seized (захватывать)their gold.
Philip II of Spain 26(final) decided to put an end to 27(this) attacks by invading England. After years of 28(prepare), Philip assembled a great fleet called the Armada. In 1588 the Armada sailed into the English Channel. The English ships were 29(small) than the Spanish ships, but they were also newer in design, faster, and 30(much) heavily armed. In the nine-day battle the Spanish suffered terrible losses. The defeat of the Spanish Armada thus became the crowning 31(glorious) of the Elizabeth's reign.
Many forms of art flourished during Elizabeth's reign over England. William Shakespeare was the 32(great) Elizabethan writer, but many others also wrote works that 33(still read) and performed hundreds of years 34(late).
Elizabeth died on March 24, 1603, at the age of 69. She never married and was 35(child). Mary Stuart’s son, James VI of Scotland, 36(become) king of England.
18. Was crowned
26. Finally 27. These
33. Are still read