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Stephen William Hawking
Stephen Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 in Oxford, where she moved from London with his parents for fear of bombing by German aircraft. Father Frank Hawking, who worked as a researcher at the medical center in Hampstead. Mother, Isobel Hawking, worked there as a Secretary. In the family except Stephen was brought up two younger sisters (Philip and Mary) and an adopted brother Edward.
In 1962, Stephen graduated from Oxford University, and in 1966 at the College of Trinity hall at Cambridge University he received the degree. Since 1965, at Cambridge University, he worked as a researcher in the College Gonvil and Keyes, 1968-1972 — the Institute of theoretical astronomy, 1972-1973 — at the Institute of astronomy, 1973-1975 — Department of applied mathematics and theoretical physics, in 1975-1977 he taught the theory of gravity, 1977-1979 Professor of gravitational physics, 1979 Professor mathematics. In 1974-1975 he was scholar at the California Institute of technology.
Already in the early 1960s, Hawking began to show signs of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which later led to paralysis. After the diagnosis of the disease in 1963 the doctors believed that he left to live only two and a half years, but the disease has not progressed as quickly, and to use the stroller, he began only in the late 1960-ies. In 1985, Stephen Hawking was seriously ill, he had pneumonia. After a series of operations he underwent tracheotomy, Hawking lost the ability to speak. Friends gave him a speech synthesizer that was installed on his wheelchair. Some mobility was retained, only the index finger on his right hand. Subsequently, the mobility remained only in a mimic muscle of a cheek, in front of which is fixed the sensor. With it, the physicist controls the computer, allowing him to communicate with others.
Despite serious illness, he leads an active life. In 2007 he took flight in zero gravity (on a special plane), and for 2009 were planned flight into space, which did not take place.
Himself Hawking said that, as a Professor of mathematics, he never received any mathematical education since middle school. In his first year of teaching at Oxford Hawking had read the textbook ahead of their own students for two weeks.
One of the most influential and known to the General public theoretical physicists of our time.
The main research area of the Hawking — cosmology and quantum gravity. His main achievements:
application of thermodynamics to the description of black holes;
the development in 1975 of the theory that black holes "evaporate" due to the phenomenon, called Hawking radiation;
In 1971 Hawking in the theory of the Big Bang suggested the concept of small black holes whose mass would be in the billions of tons and occupy the volume of the proton.
These facilities are located at the intersection of the theory of relativity (because of the huge mass and gravity) and quantum mechanics (due to their size). Is one of the founders of quantum cosmology. In 2016, called microscopic black holes a source of almost unlimited energy.
The popularization of science
Hawking is actively engaged in the popularization of science. In April 1988 he published a book "A Brief History of Time", which became a bestseller. Then came the book "Black holes and young universes" (1993) and "World in a nut shell" (2001). In 2005 he published a new edition of "a Brief history..." — "the Shortest history of time", co-authored with Leonard Mlodinow. In 2006, together with his daughter Lucy Hawking has written a book for children "George and the secrets of the Universe. "Hawking has stated that space missions are crucial to the future of humanity as life on Earth is On television came out of popular science films with the participation of Hawking: a six-part "Stephen Hawking''s Universe" (1997) and the three-part "Into the Universe with Stephen Hawking" (2010). In 2012 came the film "the Grand design Stephen Hawking" on the Discovery channel.
Hawking was one of the signatories of the "Project Steve" in support of the theory of evolution and for preventing the teaching of creationism in USA public schools.
At the end of 2015 at London's Royal society was presented the “Medal for scientific communication" will be annually awarded to personalities of science and art in the dissemination of scientific knowledge and be awarded during the international festival of science and arts "Starmus", held in the Canary Islands.
Hawking has stated that space missions are crucial to the future of humanity, because life on Earth is in growing danger of being destroyed as a result of global issues such as nuclear war, genetically engineered virus or other dangers of which we haven't thought of yet.