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The theme: “English speaking countries” New York City
Teacher :Markova O. I.
school № 59
New York City is a city in the southern end of the state and is the most populous city in the United States of America. New York City is a global economic center, with its business, finance, trading, law, and media organizations influential worldwide. The city is also an important cultural center, with many museums, galleries, and performance venues. Home of the United Nations, the city is a hub for international diplomacy. With over 8.2 million residents within an area of 322 square miles (830 km²), New York City has the highest population density of major cities in the United States. The New York metropolitan area, with a population of 18.8 million, ranks among the largest urban areas in the world.
The five boroughs: 1: Manhattan, 2: Brooklyn, 3: Queens, 4: Bronx, 5: Staten Island
New York City is comprised of five boroughs, an unusual form of government used to administer the five constituent counties that make up the city.
Manhattan (pop. 1,593,200) is the most densely populated borough of New York City and home to most of the city's skyscrapers. The borough contains the major business and financial centers of the city and many cultural attractions, including numerous museums, the Broadway theatre district and Madison Square Garden. Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown, Midtown, and Uptown regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, and above the park is Harlem.
Wall Street is the major financial centre of the U. S. and symbolizes the money market and financiers of the U.S. Wall Street was called so because of a wall which extended along the street in Dutch times. It was built about 1650 from river to river (the Hudson and the East River) to protect the small colony living south of this street from attacks by Indians. Later the wall was removed, but the name remained.
New York City Hall is the seat of the government of New York City. The building houses the office of the Mayor of New York City and the chambers of the New York City Council. The building is the oldest City Hall in the United States that still houses its original governmental functions. Constructed from 1803 to 1812, New York City Hall is a National Historic Landmark and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The World Trade Center
When the World Trade Center towers were completed in 1973 many felt them to be sterile monstrosities, even though they were the world's tallest buildings at that time. But most New Yorkers became fond of "The Twin Towers" and after the initial horror for the loss of life in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks there came great sadness for the loss of the buildings. The complex, located in the heart of New York City's downtown financial district, contained 1.24 million m² of office space, almost four percent of Manhattan's entire office inventory.
The Municipal Building
The Manhattan Municipal Building is a 40-story building built to accommodate increased governmental space demands after the 1898 consolidation of New York City from The Five Boroughs. Standing 580 feet (177 m) tall, its highest point is the second largest statue in Manhattan. The Municipal Building is one of the largest governmental buildings in the world. Thirteen civic agencies of New York City and a public radio station are located in the building, and 28,000 New Yorkers are married inside of it each year. There are 25 floors of work space (served by 33 elevators), with an additional 15 stories in the tower.
Arch of Constantine
Washington Square Park
Washington Square Park is one of the best-known of New York City's 1,700 public parks. At 39,000 m², it is a major landmark in the Manhattan neighborhood of Greenwich Village, as well as a popular meeting place and center for cultural activity. It is operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Most of the buildings surrounding the park now belong to New York University. The university rents the park for its graduation ceremonies, and uses the Arch as a symbol.
The Chinatown is an ethnic enclave with a large population of Chinese immigrants, similar to other Chinatown districts in American cities. By the 1980s it became the largest enclave of Chinese immigrants in the Western Hemisphere. By 1870, there was a Chinese population of 200. By the time the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was passed, the population was up to 2,000 residents. By 1900, there were 7,000 Chinese residents, but fewer than 200 Chinese women.
The city's 39 largest theatres are collectively known as "Broadway”. Broadway theatre is the most prestigious form of professional theatre in the U.S., as well as the most well known to the general public and most lucrative for the performers, technicians and others involved in putting on the shows.
The Woolworth Building
The Woolworth Building, at 55 stories, is one of the oldest and one of the most famous skyscrapers in New York City. With splendor and a resemblance to European Gothic cathedrals, the structure was labeled the Cathedral of Commerce. The structure has a long association with higher education, housing a number of Fordham University schools in the early 20th century. Today the building houses, among other tenants, Control Group Inc, and the New York University School of Continuing and Professional Studies' Center for Global Affairs.
The Brooklyn Bridge
The Brooklyn Bridge is one of the oldest suspension bridges in the United States, stretches 1825 m over the East River connecting the Manhattan and Brooklyn. On completion, it was the largest suspension bridge in the world and the first steel-wire suspension bridge. The bridge cost $15.1 million to build and approximately 27 people died during its construction. A week after the opening, on May 30 1883 a rumor that the Bridge was going to break down caused a stampede which crushed and then killed twelve people.
Times Square is at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue. Times Square consists of the blocks between Sixth and Eighth Avenues from east to west, and West 40th and West 53rd Streets from south to north, making up the western part of the commercial area of Midtown Manhattan. Smaller than Red Square in Moscow or Trafalgar Square in London, Times Square has nonetheless achieved the status of an iconic world landmark and has become a symbol of its home city. Times Square is principally defined by its animated, digital advertisements.
The Public Library
The New York Public Library (NYPL) is one of the leading public libraries of the world and is one of America's most significant research libraries. It is composed of a very large circulating public library system combined with a very large non-lending research library system. NYPL consists of 86 libraries in the Bronx, Manhattan, and Staten Island: four non-lending research libraries, four main lending libraries, a library for the blind and physically handicapped, and 77 neighborhood branch libraries. All libraries in the NYPL system may be used free of charge by all visitors.
The United Nations Headquarters
The United Nations Headquarters occupies six block area. The 39-story Secretariat Building houses offices of about 5,000 persons of different nationalities who form the administrative organ of the United Nations. The shallow-domed General Assembly is the meeting-place of the representatives of the member nations. The regular session is held annually beginning in the fall .
The Museum of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is a preeminent art museum. It is regarded as the leading museum of modern art in the world. Its collection includes works of architecture and design, drawings, painting and sculpture, photography, prints and illustrated books, film, and media. MoMA's library and archives are a major resource and hold over 300,000 books, artist books, and periodicals, as well as individual files on more than 70,000 artists. The archives contain primary source material related to the history of modern and contemporary art.
St. Patrick's Cathedral
St. Patrick's Cathedral is the largest decorated Neo-Gothic-style Catholic cathedral in North America. It is the seat of the archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York, and a parish church, located just across the street from Rockefeller Center. The eight deceased archbishops of New York, six of them Cardinals, are buried in a crypt under the former high altar, visible from the entrance to the Lady Chapel in the rear of the cathedral.
Central Park is a large public park (3.41 km). With about twenty-five million visitors annually, Central Park is the most visited city park in the United States, and its appearance in many movies and television shows has made it among the most famous city parks in the world. Central Park contains several artificial lakes, extensive walking tracks, two ice-skating rinks, a wildlife sanctuary, and grassy areas and playgrounds for children. The park is a popular oasis for migrating birds.
The Lincoln Center
The Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, which includes Jazz at Lincoln Center, the Metropolitan Opera, the New York City Opera, the New York Philharmonic, the New York City Ballet, the Vivian Beaumont Theatre, The Juilliard School and Alice Tully Hall, is the largest performing arts center in the United States.
New York State Theater
Metropolitan Opera House
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, founded in 1937, is a modern art museum. It is the last major work of Frank Lloyd Wright, one of the world's most prominent and influential architects. From the street, the building looks approximately like a white ribbon curled into a cylindrical stack, slightly wider at the top than the bottom. Paintings are displayed along the walls of the spiral and also in viewing rooms found at stages along the way. The Guggenheim was founded to showcase avant-garde art by early modernists such as Wassily Kandinsky and Piet Mondrian.
Museum of Natural History
The American Museum of Natural History has a scientific staff of more than 200, and sponsors over 100 special field expeditions each year. The Museum boasts habitat groups of African, Asian and North American mammals, the "Star of India", the largest blue sapphire in the world, an interesting illustration of the growth and development of man. The Hayden Planetarium, connected to the museum, is now part of the Rose Center for Earth and Space, housed in a glass cube containing the spherical Space Theater.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art is one of the world's largest and most important art museums. The main building is located on the eastern edge of Central Park. The Met's permanent collection contains more than two million works of art, divided into nineteen curatorial departments. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts large traveling shows throughout the year.
The Cloisters is the branch of the Metropolitan Museum of Art dedicated to the art and architecture of the European middle ages. The Cloisters include the museum building and the adjacent 16,000 m². The Cloisters collection contains approximately five thousand European medieval works of art, with a particular emphasis on pieces dating from the twelfth through the fifteen centuries.
Columbia University is a private research university in the United States. It has the most Nobel Prize affiliations of any institution in the USA. It is home to the prestigious Pulitzer Prize, which, for over a century, has rewarded outstanding achievement in journalism, literature and music. It has been the birthplace of FM radio, the first American university to offer anthropology and political science as academic disciplines, and where the foundation of modern genetics was discovered. Its Morningside Heights campus was the first North American site where the uranium atom was split.
Литература Britain in Brief: Кн. для чтения на англ.яз. в ст.классах сред.шк. / Сост. В.В.Ощепкова, И.И.Шустилова. – М.: Просвещение, 1993. – 157 с. Голицинский Ю.Б. Великобритания - СПб.: КАРО, 2004. – 480с. Голицинский Ю.Б. Соединенные Штаты Америки: Пособие по страноведению. – СПб.: КАРО, 2004. – 448 с. Томахин Г.Д. По Соединенным Штатам Америки:/Пособие для учителей/Под ред. Н.Н.Яковлева. – М.: Просвещение, 1980. – 176 с.
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