Презентация - Present Perfect

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Слайды и текст этой презентации

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Tense
Present Perfect

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for unfinished action which started in the past and continues up to the present, the time period is not finished e.g. He has worked in this company for five years.(= He started working in the company five years ago and he still works there.) e.g. I have known him for 3 years. (=The action is still continuous, is not finished, I still know him) to talk about a past action which has a visible result in the present. e.g. He has sprained his ankle. (He can’t walk.) We have cleaned the house (The house is cleaned now)
We use the present perfect:

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I haven’t eaten since yesterday morning. I am really hungry I haven’t drunk anything for two days. I am terribly thirsty

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General life experiences, personal experiences. We don’t know when these experiences happened, we are talking about smth. in general. The time expressions ever and never are very often used with this meaning. e.g. Have you been to France? Have you read this book? Have you seen Titanic So we are talking about smth. in your whole life not a single moment when we know when(Past Simple), we are not talking about smth. 3 minutes ago or 5 years ago. We mean ever in your life.

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Forms of the verb
I You We They
+
have
+
V3
He She It
+
has
+
V3
I have just bought a new notebook.
Mary has already written her composition.
The students have left the room. Студенты ушли из комнаты (студентов сейчас в комнате нет).
We have bought a new TV set. Мы купили новый телевизор (у нас есть новый телевизор).

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Negations
I you we they
+
Have
+
V3
he she it
+
Has
+
V3
Questions
?
?
I You We They
+
have
+
V3
He She It
+
has
+
V3
not
not
hasn’t
haven’t
Have you already seen this film?
Has Mary cleaned her room yet?
Sorry, I haven’t written the story yet.
Tom hasn’t finished his test.
Yes, I have.
No, I haven’t.
Yes, she has.
No, she hasn’t.

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Слова – помощники (наречия - adverbs)
already – уже just – только что recently, lately (недавно, в последнее время) yet – ещё never – никогда ever – когда-либо
употребляется в «-» и «?» предложениях и стоит всегда в конце предложения
Patricia: Have you ever played tennis? Linda: No, I’ve never played before, but I would like to learn!
He hasn’t finished his work yet.
I haven’t received any letters from him lately.
I have just seen him.
I’ve already mailed the letter.

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Present Perfect употребляется с предлогами
с какого-то момента в прошлом до настоящего времени
в течение какого-то промежутка времени (за этот промежуток времени)
I haven’t heard from him since June. Я не получал от него известий с июня.
с тех пор как
I haven’t heard from him since he left Moscow. Я не получал от него известий с тех пор, как он уехал из Москвы.
since
for
I haven’t seen him for two days. Я не видел его в течение двух дней.
Mary has written a composition for an hour. Мэри написала сочинение за час.

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Сравним: Compare the meaning of these two sentences: Sara lived in Boston for 5 years. Past Simple We mean that Sara started living in Boston 5 years ago. . . and then she moved! Now she lives in a different city, like Paris. 2. Sara has lived in Boston for 5 years. Present Perfect We mean that Sara began living in Boston 5 years ago. . . and she still lives there.
Remember:

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We never use Present Perfect with When
!
When did you start your job?
You have bought a new bag! It’ really cool! When did you buy it?

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Note the difference between have been to and have gone to
He has been to London.  Now he is here. He can tell you wonderful stories about London

Where’s Peter? He has gone to London.  He is in Italy or on his way to London.