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Scotland: the autonomous country (from 1707) The capital: Edinburgh The official languages: English, Scottish - Gaelic, Scots The form of government: constitutional monarchy Population: 5 295 400 people
Scotland - the northern third of the island of Great Britain and neighboring islands - Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland The area of Scotland – 78 882 km2
The Flag (Saint Andrew's Cross)
to be crucified – быть
Royal Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland (from 1707)
- the lion on the shield
a golden helmet with the royal crown above the shield
the lion, holding the golden sword with the silver blade and the golden scepter
the motto of Scotland “In My Defense God Me Defend” above the lion
the silver crowned Unicorns with golden arms, chained in gold chain
Parliament of Scotland
Composition: 126 members, the Presiding Officer and two Substituents of the Presiding Officer
Population Scots – 88 % Englishmen – 7 % Irish and Poles – 100 000
Scotland – one of the most educational countries in the world 45 % of population (25-64) – Higher and post-graduate education
- The majority - the adherents (приверженцы) of the national Church of Scotland
16 % - adherents to the Roman Catholic Church
28% - atheists
The administrative division Scotland consists of 32 Council areas 6 cities of Scotland: Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Stirling and Inverness
Climate - temperate oceanic - The coldest month – January and February (the average maximum temperature 5-7°C) - The warmest month – June and August (19°C) - southwest wind - frequent storms
The Tay – 193 km.
The Spey – 172 km.
The Clyde – 171 km.
- The fresh-water reservoirs – “Loch”. - 90 % of the fresh-water reservoirs.
Loch Lomond (71,1 km2 ) – the biggest lake in the size.
The Loch Ness(56,4 km2 ) – the biggest lake on the volume (more water than all the lakes of Wales and England together)
The Grampian Mountains
Scotland-the most mountainous country. The highest mountains are in The Grampian Mountains.
The highest top of the Great Britain- The Ben Nevis.
(The Western part)
Edinburgh – the capital of Scotland (since 1437) The position: the eastern coast of Scotland, on the southern coast of the gulf the Firth of Forth. Population: 468 070 people
- the second economic center in the UK and the fifth in the Europe. - one of the most prosperous economic regions in the UK
The economy areas: - Brewery -Tourism
The Caledonian Brewery
-National Gallery of Scotland
-Scottish National Portrait Gallery
- Scotch Whisky Heritage Centre
-Museum of Childhood
- The Edinburgh International Festival
- The Edinburgh International Film Festival
- The Edinburgh International Book Festival
- The Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo
The West End festival (since 1996)- the festival including performances of street theaters, musical and dancing actions, carnival processions, parades
Glasgow – the biggest city of Scotland Position: the west of the central part, on the river Clyde Population: 629 501 people
The economic areas:
70 parks -The Kelvingrove Park -The Queens Park -Glasgow Green
“Loch Ness Monster”
The Royal Mile
Edinburgh Castle - the most famous castle (12 century) Position: the top of the extinct volcano.
The Hebrides- the archipelago, consisting of several tens of islands .
The Forth Bridge (1890) - one of the first console bridges of the world.
Kelburn castle (XIII century) Position: North Ayrshire
Stirling castle (12 century) Position: top of the extinct volcano in the field of Stirling.
Palace of Holyroodhouse - the official residence of the Queen in Scotland
National Scottish cuisine
a popular dish in Scotland
The Scots love desserts
Scottish national costume
the main distinguishing feature
Tartan - woolen cloth with a pattern of lines of different widths and different colors , which intersect each other at right angles.
Clan in Scotland is a group of families bearing the same surname.
The majority of Scottish dancing simple and incendiary.
Traditions of Scotland are numerous: among them traditional tartan fabric and tradition of the game of Golf and salmon fishing.
The Literature of Scotland
The main languages of Scottish literature are Gaelic, Latin, and old English.
Robert Burns (1759-1796)
Walter Scott (1771-1832)
The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border.
Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894).
Cinematography of Scotland
One of the national artistic creation
Michael Caton-Jones (1957)
famous Scottish producer
Famous Actors of Scotland:
The famous films:
"39 steps" (1935).
"Whisky galore" (1949)
"The Prime of miss Jean Brodie" (1969)
"My childhood" (1972), "My family" (1973), "My way home" (1978)
The National Symbols: The Apostle Andrew - the patron of Scotland
Bagpipe - national musical instrument, the unofficial symbol of Scotland
Unicorn – the traditional holder the shield
The thistle – semi-official national symbol of Scotland (protection from the Vikings)