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Stages of computer development
Student: Baranov Nikita
Teacher: Aituganovna Zhanna Ilevna
Targets and goals:
Show how computers have evolved
Explain the stages of computer development
There are four stages of the development of computer technology:
1.Pre-mechanical - from the 40-30th millennium BC.
2.Mechanical - from the middle of the XVII century.
3. Electromechanical -- since the 90s of the XIX century.
4. Electronic - since the second half of the 40s of the XX century.
The pre-mechanical stage.
The manual period of computer automation began at the dawn of human civilization and was based on the use of body parts, primarily fingers and toes. The concept of number is as specific as possible, it is inextricably linked with the subject. The range of the account is small. There are three types of such counting devices. Artificial devices: notches (notches) on various objects, knots on ropes are widely used in South America. Object account when objects such as pebbles, sticks, grains, etc. are used.
In ancient Rome, in the V century A.D., a "counting board" appeared and it was called calculi or abakuli. For the manufacture of the Roman abacus (Fig. 3), in addition to stone slabs, bronze, ivory and even colored glass began to be used. Pebbles or marbles were also placed in vertical grooves divided into two fields, while the grooves of the lower field served for counting from one to five. If there were five balls in this groove, then one ball was added to the upper compartment, and all the balls were removed from the lower field.
Xuan-pan — a Chinese variety of abacus — appeared in the VI century AD. The Japanese variety of abacus is soroban
The development of mechanics in the 17th century became a prerequisite for the creation of computing devices and devices using the mechanical principle of computation. Such devices were built on mechanical elements and provided automatic transfer of the senior discharge. The first mechanical machine was described in 1623 . The Shikkard machine was implemented in a single copy and was intended to perform four arithmetic operations on 6-bit numbers. The Shikkard machine consisted of three independent devices: summing, multiplying and writing numbers. Addition was performed by sequentially entering summands by means of dial disks, and subtraction by sequentially entering the reduced and subtracted. The entered numbers and the result of addition/subtraction were displayed in the reading windows. To perform the multiplication operation, the idea of lattice multiplication, discussed above, was used. The third part of the machine was used to record a number longer than 6 digits.
The first calculating and analytical complex was created in the USA by G. Hollerith in 1887 and consisted of a hand punch, a sorting machine and a tabulator.
In the USSR, a relay computer (RVM-1) was built in 1957 and it was operated until the end of 1964 mainly to solve economic problems. It was used to recalculate the prices of goods in connection with the monetary reform of 1961. RVM-1 was quite competitive with computers of that time on a number of tasks, very reliable and its performance was at the level of the first small computers
Electronic stage. The electronic stage can be divided into generations of computers.
The first PC can be considered the Altair-8800, created on the basis of the Intel-8080 microprocessor in 1974 by Edward Roberts. The computer was sent by mail, cost only $ 397 and had the ability to expand with peripheral devices (only 256 bytes of RAM!!!). For the Altair-8800, Paul Allen and Bill Gates created a translator from the popular Basic language, significantly increasing the intelligence of the first PC (later they founded the now famous company Microsoft Inc). The completion of the PC with a color monitor led to the creation of a competing PC model Z-2; a year after the appearance of the first Altair-8800 PC, more than 20 different companies and firms joined the production of PCs; the PC industry began to form (the actual production of PCs, their sales, periodic and non-periodic publications, exhibitions, conferences, etc.). And already in 1977, three models were launched into serial production Apple-2 PCs (Apple Computers), TRS-80 (Tandy Radio Shark) and PET (Commodore), of which, in the competitive struggle, the lagging Apple company soon becomes the leader in PC production (its Apple-2 model was a huge success). By 1980 Apple Corporation enters Wall Street with the largest share capital and annual revenue of $ 117 million.The first computer that opens the class of supercomputers proper can be considered the Amdahl 470V16 model, created in 1975 and compatible with the IBM series.