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Lecture 4 International Organizations: Forums and Clubs, International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs)
April 15, 2022
Dr. Tatyana Leonova
INTERNATIONAL FORUMS AND CLUBS
Global governance refers to the way in which global affairs are managed
Global governance typically involves a range of actors including states, as well as regional and international organizations, now also INGOs (!)
Global governance is an international process of consensus-forming which generates guidelines and agreements that affect national governments and international corporations
The process of international organization, during which sovereign states start getting into groups to coordinate their national policies and jointly develop some unified policies and rules in the international landscape, is called
is the practice of coordinating national policies in groups of three or more states
2005, Robert Keohane, After Hegemony: Cooperation and discord in the World Economy
These days – new interconnected global challenges (geopolitical, economic, environmental, social and technological) are prompting proliferation and diversification of actors, forums, and their arrangements, which causes certain fragmentation of global governance – i.e. emergence of the so called “contested multilateralism” (!)
Modern Contested Multilateralism
“Contested multilateralism” is perceived positively as it is considered that institutional and organizational diversity could produce better outcomes in dealing with persisting and emerging global challenges, and could fill existing governance gaps;
Hard and soft law international governance:
Bretton-Woods and UN System institutions (40ies of XX century) – formal, hard law, broadly multilateral, heavily organized bureaucracies
New informal multilateral institutions (end of XX century) – smaller membership, lighter legal obligations (soft law), less bureaucracy, greater reliance on flexible voluntary approaches with absence of legally binding commitments).
These new informal groupings set their agenda and engage with established formal international organizations in pursuing global governance matters. Some of them even assume leading roles on certain topics (e.g. G20 – on global financial regulation)
An International club (forum) or para-organization (from Greek “para” – analogous, similar to a traditional international organization) is a non-institutionalized informal association of countries (leaders of the world economy) and/or financial institutions established to discuss and elaborate decisions on the most important aspects of international economic and financial collaboration.
Any international para-organization (forum, club) possesses some characteristics of an organization but is not being technically the one due to the lack of:
A foundation agreement, charter, specified membership criteria,
International legal personality,
The right to take legally qualified decisions
International para-organizations are noted for more flexible patterns of relations between participants, and the lack of strict regulation (coordinating bodies functioning between the meetings, scientific and program committees, as well as a range of public events)
Governmental – G7, G20, Paris Club, APEC, BRICS
Nongovernmental – London Club, Bilderberg Club, Davos Forum
“Group of Seven” (G7) - background
Originally, the G6 was established by the meeting of heads of governments of France, USA, UK, West Germany, Italy and Japan, held in France (Chateau de Rambouillet) on November 15-17, 1975 (since early 1970-s such meetings have been held at the level of ministries of finance);
WHY? The reason for establishing:
The idea to hold summits of the most developed countries appeared in early 1970-s in connection with the economic crisis and growing controversies between the USA, Western Europe and Japan on economic (first of all - trade) and financial issues
The first meeting (November 15-17, 1975) held at the initiative of the then French President Valery Giscard d’Estaing, was attended by the heads of state and governments of six countries: USA, Japan, France, UK, West Germany, Italy. The summit adopted a joint Declaration on economic problems, which contained a call to avoid aggression in the world trade and prevent the setting of new discrimination barriers.
In 1976, the “Group of Six” transformed into the “Group of Seven” with the inclusion of Canada, and during 1991-2002 has gradually (based on “7+1” pattern) formed the “Group of Eight” with Russia’s participation (since 1996, after the summit in Moscow until March 2014)
G7(8) Summits – Main Topics
1975 Rambouillet Unemployment, inflation, energy crisis, structural reform of the international currency system.
1979 Tokyo Oil price growth, energy deficit, the need to develop nuclear power, problem of refugees from Indo-China.
1982 Versailles Development of economic relations with the USSR and East European countries, situation in Lebanon.
1985 Bonn Economic protectionism hazards, environmental protection policy, cooperation in science and technologies.
1986 Tokyo Formulation of mid-term tax and financial policy, means of methods of controlling international terrorism, Chernobyl NPP accident.
1990 London Investments and credits for Central and Eastern European countries, situation in the USSR and assistance to the USSR in developing market economy, creation of favorable investment climate in developing countries, reunification of Germany.
1992 Munich Environmental issues, support of market reforms in Poland, relations with CIS countries, safety of nuclear facilities in these countries, role of OSCE in ensuring equal rights for ethnic and other minorities, situation in the former Yugoslavia.
1993 Tokyo Situation in transition economies, destruction of nuclear weapons in the CIS, compliance with the Rocket Technologies Control Regime, aggravation of the situation in the former Yugoslavia, efforts for peace process in the Middle East.
1995 Halifax New format of summits, reform of the international institutions (IMF, World Bank), prevention of energy crises and coping strategies, situation in the former Yugoslavia.
1996 Moscow (meeting) Nuclear security, control of illegal trade in nuclear materials, situation in Lebanon and Middle East peace process.
1998 Birmingham New format of summits — “leaders only”, pre-summit meetings of ministers of finance and foreign affaires. Global and regional security.
2000 Nago IT development impact on economy and finance, TB control, education, biotechnologies, conflict prevention.
2001 Genoa Development challenges, poverty reduction, food security, problems with ratification of Kyoto Protocol, nuclear disarmament, situation in the Balkans and Middle East.
2005 Gleneagles Global climate change and assistance to the poorest countries in Africa.
2006 Saint-Petersburg Energy security, demographical situation and education, health.
2007 Heiligendamm Control of global climate change and assistance to the poorest countries in Africa.
2009 L’Aquila 2008-2009 global economic crisis and issues of food security.
2011 Deauville Civil war in Libya. Energy and climate change, food security and nutrition.
2012 Camp David The summit concentrated on the core leaders only; no non-G8 leaders or international organizations were invited.
2013 Lough Erne The four main topics: government transparency, tackling tax evasion, and the ongoing Syrian crisis
European Union Brussels G7 summit as an alternative meeting without Russia in 2014 due to association with Crimean crisis.
Bavaria Focus on the global economy, issues regarding foreign, security and development policy,
Japan Shinzō Abe Shima, Mie Prefecture
“Group of twenty” (G20)
Meetings at the level of ministers of finance and central bank governors
The Group of Twenty is a leading Forum for international cooperation on the most important aspects of international economic and financial agenda.
Policy coordination between G20 countries to achieve global economic stability and sustainable growth;
Promotion of financial regulation that would help reduce risks and prevent future financial crises;
Creation of new international financial architecture.
The trigger for establishing: financial crisis of 1997-1998 demonstrated vulnerability of the international financial system under the globalization of economic relations, and showed that key developing economies are insufficiently involved in the discussion and management of the global economy
The decision to establish the Group of Twenty was made by the meeting of the ministers of finance and central bank governors from G7 countries in Washington in September 1999)
From 2000 till 2008 - G20 meetings were held at the level of ministers of finance and heads of CBs
From 2008 to date – Meetings at the level of Heads of States (Summits) and meetings of MoF and CB heads
Meetings at the level of country leaders (Summits)
Сентябрь 2013 Санкт-Петербург, Россия
Ноябрь 2014 Брисбен, Австралия
Ноябрь 2015 Анталья, Турция
Сентябрь 2016 Ханчжоу, Китай
Ноябрь 2018 Буэнос-Айрес, Аргентина
Collectively, the G20 accounts for 90% of the world GDP:
80% of the world trade; 2/3 of the global population; 84% of atmospheric emissions from fossil fuel combustion.
G20: Summits Agendas
The first - anti-crisis - G20 Summit took place on November 14-15, 2008, in Washington to discuss issues related to the global financial crisis.
G-20 Summit in London (UK), April 2, 2009. This was the second G20 meeting dealing with the global financial crisis. The main objectives were to discuss: required actions to prevent global recession, deflation, strengthening of the financial sector and prevention of protectionism, strengthening of the global financial and economic system, measures for transition of the world economy to sustainable growth.
G-20 Summit in Pittsburg (USA), September 24-25, 2009. Major outcomes: a promise to jointly upgrade banking standards, including the limitation of unreasonably high payments to top managers; intention to create a system of coordinated economic policy actions of all G20 participants.
G-20 Summit in Toronto (Canada), June 26-27, 2010. In the final declaration, developed countries committed to halve the budget (deficit) gap by 2013.
G-20 Summit in Seoul (Korea), November 11-12, 2010. Currency policy of the USA and China (currency wars) was among the main topic of the summit. The work of the Development Working Group started under the Seoul Chairmanship.
G-20 Summit in Cannes (France), November 3-4, 2011. The summit made a decision to strengthen control over the banks, and discussed measures to prevent the global crisis.
G-20 Summit in Los Cabos (Mexico), June 18-19, 2012.
G-20 Summit in Saint-Petersburg (Russia), September 5-6, 2013. During the summit, the leaders paid special attention to promoting economic growth and financial stability, job creation and unemployment reduction, encouraging investments, strengthening multilateral trade, and facilitating international development, as well as the war in Syria.
G-20 Summit in Brisbane (Australia), November 15-16, 2014 The focus of the Summit was on the economic recovery and strategic priorities for growth, financial rebalancing and emerging economies, investment and infrastructure, and employment and labor mobility.
G-20 Summit in Belek (Turkey), November 15-16, 2015 Discuss of the world's biggest political and security crises, including Syria and the mass migration of refugees. Strong political focus because of the terrorist attacks in Paris.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum: established in Canberra (Australia) in 1989 at the initiative of the Australian Prime Minister B. Hawke.
Goals: Promote trade, integration and relations between the economies of the Pacific basin.
APEC - "the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region" established to "further enhance economic growth and prosperity for the region and to strengthen the Asia-Pacific community“
Members: 21 economies, three official observers: ASEAN, the Pacific Islands Forum and the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council
Structure: Business Advisory Committee, three Expert Committees (Trade and Investment, Economic, and Administrative and Budget Committees), and 11 Working Groups dealing with various sectors of economy.
Since 1993, annual Summits (informal meetings) of the Leaders of the APEC economies have become the main organizational form of the APEC activities
The acronym "BRICs" was invented in 2001 by economist Jim O'Neill, of Goldman Sachs, in a report on growth prospects for the economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China – which together represented a significant share of the world's production and population (fastest growing economies)
In 2006, the four countries initiated a regular informal diplomatic coordination, with annual meetings of Foreign Ministers at the margins of the General Debate of the UN General Assembly (UNGA)
This successful interaction led to the decision that the dialogue was to be carried out at the level of Heads of State and Government in annual Summits.
As of the First Summit, held in Yekaterinburg in 2009, the depth and scope of the dialogue among the Members of BRICs – which became BRICS in 2011 with the inclusion of South Africa – was further enhanced.
BRICS became a new and promising political-diplomatic entity, far beyond the original concept tailored for the financial markets (!)
At its 6th Summit, the BRICS established the New Development Bank, aimed at financing infrastructure and sustainable development projects in the BRICS and other developing countries
BRICS also created the Contingent Reserves Arrangement (CRA), a special fund with an initial sum of US$ 100 billion, through which the BRICS countries will be able to use to cope with short-term liquidity pressures, will contribute to international financial stability, by providing an additional line of defense to the BRICS.
‘BRICS @ 15: Intra-BRICS Cooperation for Continuity, Consolidation and Consensus’.
BRICS celebrated its 15th anniversary in 2021
The Summit took a look back at the journey traversed thus far since the first meeting of BRIC Foreign Ministers
on the margins of the UN General Assembly in New York in 2006, to review the achievements and contributions of
BRICS to the global agenda and also to our national growth stories.
All past years BRICS has been a beacon (lighthouse) of multilateralism based on equality, mutual respect and trust.
The approach of BRICS operation is to strengthen the founding principles of BRICS cooperation based on continuity,
consolidation and consensus.
Three pillars of intra-BRICS cooperation in 2021.
Political and Security:
To enhance cooperation and dialogue on issues of global and regional security, developments in the global political space for peace, security and prosperity. Our priorities under this pillar are:
Reform of the Multilateral System
Counter Terrorism Cooperation
Economic and Financial:
To promote economic growth and development for mutual prosperity through the expansion of intra-BRICS cooperation in sectors such as trade, agriculture, infrastructure, small and medium enterprises, energy and finance & banking. Recognizing the advantages of using technological and digital solutions for the achievement of SDGs BRICS countries put special special focus on:
Implementation of the BRICS Economic Partnership Strategy 2020-25.
Operationalization of the BRICS Agriculture Research Platform.
Cooperation on Disaster Resilience.
Digital Health and Traditional Medicine.
Cultural and People to People:
To qualitatively enrich and enhance intra-BRICS people to people contacts in cultural, academic, youth, sports, business, through regular exchanges. Exchanges among Parliamentarians, young scientists etc. are also held.
Role of international forums and clubs in addressing global challenges
Important mechanisms in regulation of the global market and global international relations
Coordination between the states in connection with global changes
Elaboration of consolidated decisions and assumption of obligations to fulfill them
Consolidation of financial resources to address global challenges
Cross-cutting expertise of numerous forums enabling an integrated approach to addressing the global agenda (security, economy, environment, assistance to developing countries, globalization, etc.)
Flexibility and informal nature of para-organizations facilitates quick response to global changes (!)
International Non Governmental Organizations (INGOs)
What is an NGO?
Usually Formal: the organization is institutionalized meaning that it has regular meetings, office bearers, and some organizational permanence.
Private: institutionally separate from government, though it may receive some support from government;
Non-for-profit, and if a financial surplus is generated it does not accrue to and not distributed to owners or directors
Self-governing and therefore able to control and manage its own affairs
Voluntary, and even if it does not use volunteer staff as such, there is at least some degree of voluntary participation in the conduct or management of the organization,
“Third Sector” – a group of organizations and social space between government and market.
‘not-for-profit’, ‘voluntary’ or ‘non-governmental’
NGO and INGO History and Evolution
NGO and INGO Proliferation - evolution
In 1850 there were only 5 INGOs in the world
in 1914 – around 330,
in 1939 – around 730,
in 1970 – around 2300,
in 1990 – around 6000,
in 2000 there were already 45,674 INGOs in the world,
since then, every year hundreds of new non-governmental organizations appear around the world
NGO and INGO Proliferation – these days:
The number of NGOs operating in countries:
United States is estimated at 1.5 - 2 million.
Russia has around 277,000 NGOs.
India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, and many times the number of primary schools and primary health centers in India.
15% of total overseas development aid is channeled through NGOs;
NB! INGOs operate on all five continents of the Earth, while the headquarters of the largest and most influential of them are mainly located in the developed countries of the North - about 90% of the total number of INGOs (Amnesty International in London, the International Committee of the Red Cross in Geneva, Oxfam in Oxford, Greenpeace in Amsterdam, etc.)
Drivers of NGO and INGO proliferation
Globalization has exacerbated concerns over environment, climate change, labor rights, human rights, consumer rights, etc..
The end of the Cold War => democratization and technological progress have paved a way for people to get together to express their concerns
Recognition of the need for new approaches and new players helping address the developing economies’ issues
Increased global focus on environmental protection, social development and gender issues
ICT revolution, development of the global mass media and social networks
Increased interest to peoples’ religious and cultural identity
INGO Objectives and Functions
поднимают вопросы, которые не затрагиваются деятельностью правительств; (make noise)
собирают, обрабатывают и распространяют информацию о международных проблемах, требующих общественного внимания; (disclose and raise awareness)
инициируют конкретные подходы к решению таких проблем и побуждают правительства к заключению соответствующих соглашений; (suggest approaches to solving problems and put pressure on governments to act)
лоббируют правительства и межгосударственные структуры с целью принятия необходимых решений; (lobbying and advocacy)
осуществляют наблюдение за деятельностью правительств и межгосударственных структур в тех или иных сферах международной жизни и за выполнением государствами и межправительственными организациями взятых на себя обязательств; (oversight and monitoring)
мобилизуют общественное мнение и способствуют возникновению чувства причастности «простого человека» к крупным международным проблемам. (mobilize public opinion and develop “sense of belonging” of each person to global challenges and problems)
Барановский В.Г. Международные организации как механизмы регулирования международных отношений // Современные международные отношения. М., 1999. С. 121–122
Some types and examples of INGOs
the International Political Science Association
the International Organization of Journalists;
Demographic (Social) organizations:
the Women's International Democratic Federation
the World Federation of Democratic Youth;
the International Council of Community Churches,
the World Muslim Congress,
Legal (Human Rights) organizations:
Human Right Watch
the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies;
Médecins Sans Frontières, HealthRight International
the International Olympic Committee
the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)
Catalysts of change
Catalysts of Change
Advocacy and lobbying: topic (issue, challenge) statement -> definition of political tasks -> implementation of the tasks. (Examples: Greenpeace, Amnesty International, Freedom House, Sunrise Foundation, and Oxfam)
Monitoring of actions taken by governments, international organizations and companies (watchdog and whistleblower). (Examples: Transparency International, Amnesty International, CorpWatch, Human Rights Watch, and Bretton Woods Project)
Analytical research and consulting (Oxfam, WWF)
Information and media work, including investigative journalism
Lawmaking (the Hague Institute for the Internationalization of Law, the International Committee of the Red Cross)
Charity: grant making (Bill & Belinda Gates Foundation)
Cooperation with national governments
Cooperation with the business community
Cooperation with international organizations (in particular, NGOs that have a consultative status with the United Nations)
INGOs’ Consultative Status with the United Nations. Example: ECOSOC
Over 150 INGOs have been granted consultative status with the Council
organizations whose area of work covers most aspects the Council’s activities;
organizations that have a special competence in specific areas;
(III) organizations that assist the Council as needed
INGOs with consultative status:
may send their observers to the opening sessions held by ECOSOC and its subsidiary bodies,
make written statements on the Council’s work,
consult with the UN Secretariat
Partnership with the World Bank
The World Bank interacts with thousands of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) throughout the world at the global, regional, and country levels.
These CSOs include NGOs, trade unions, faith-based organizations, indigenous peoples movements, foundations and many other.
These interactions range from CSOs who:
critically monitor the Bank’s work,
engage the Bank in policy discussions,
those which actively collaborate with the Bank in operational activities.
There are many examples of active partnerships in the areas of forest conservation, AIDS vaccines, rural poverty, micro-credit, and internet development.
Sources of finance for INGOs
replenish their budget with membership fees and voluntary donations;
play actively on the international “aid market”;
bidding for contracts from international organizations and government agencies;
receive funding directly from national governments and from other pro-government foundations and agencies;
World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) is one of the largest independent international nature preservation organizations which unites about 5 million permanent supporters and operates in over 100 countries.
WWF's mission is to stop the increasing degradation of the planet's environment to achieve harmony between human and nature. The key goal is to preserve the Earth’s biodiversity.
Main programs of WWF-Russia:
Forest Program: conservation of the biological diversity of Russian forests through their sustainable management and protection.
Marine Program: sustainable management of marine resources and protection of marine fauna and flora.
Climate Program: climate change prevention and adaptation.
Work on Protected Areas: establishing systems of protected nature areas (nature reserves, national parks, sanctuaries, etc.) that will guarantee long-term biodiversity conservation.
Protection of Rare Species : projects to preserve critically endangered animal species such as the Far East leopard, the Amur tiger, the European bison, the Snow leopard, and the Siberian white crane.
Greening the Russian Oil and Gas Sector: prevention and mitigation of a negative impact of the oil and gas sector on Russia’s environment by strengthening corporate environmental responsibility.
WWF: Sources of Income
WWF: Expenditure Items
Non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over forty (40) countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Its goal is to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity“
Focuses its campaigning on world wide issues such as global warming, deforestation, overfishing,
commercial whaling, genetic engineering, and anti-nuclear issues.
Uses direct action, lobbying and research to achieve its goals.
Relying on 2.9 million individual supporters and foundation grants.
Has a general consultative status with the United Nations ECOSOC
Part of Transparency International’s work is to develop and promote practical tools that reduce the opportunities for corruption and enhance the ability of people and organizations to resist it.
It works with experts from companies, universities and other NGOs to create tools suited to a range of situations in many sectors of society.
Manuals and toolkits for monitoring public procurement processes,
concrete guidance for companies on avoiding extortion and curtailing bribery,
reliable diagnostics for measuring and mapping corruption
These tools give individuals and institutions creative solutions to some of the most common challenges in countering corruption.
Private sector tools include the Business Principles for Countering Bribery
Public sector tools include Integrity Pacts
Tools for corruption researchers include GATEway
Tools for activists, educators and other members of civil society include the Corruption Fighters' Toolkits”
Headquarters: Berlin, Germany
INGO that is dedicated to the
promotion and protection of internationally regarded human rights
Stop violence against women
Defend the rights and dignity of those trapped in poverty
Abolish the death penalty
Oppose torture and combat terror with justice
Free prisoners of conscience
Protect the rights of refugees and migrants
Regulate the global arms trade
This organization uses more of an advocacy approach to promote change and human rights within the government.
It mobilizes “public pressure through mass demonstrations, watch and direct lobbying as well as online and offline campaigning” in order to promote its ongoing campaigns, which reflect AI goals
Amnesty International Charity Limited is a company registered in England & Wales, limited by guarantee (no. 02007475) and a registered charity (no. 294230), with registered office at 1 Easton Street, London WC1X 0DW.
Bill & Belinda Gates Foundation
Private philanthropy foundation
Four grant making areas:
Global Development Program
Global Health Program
Global Policy and Advocacy
United States Program
Total 2015 Direct Grantee Support: $4.2 billion
Dependence of governments and donors
Government substitution in developing countries instead of building capacity and supporting professional development of local staff in public sector
International humanitarian assistance programs often becoming a supply-driven business
A threat to social and political stability in developing countries: NGO swarming (рой, туча)
Alien (foreign) values being imposed and local culture destroyed (e.g. “import of democracy”)
Prevalence of single-issue campaigns instead of systemic treatment of development issues
Seminar 4. Simulation Game: G-20 countries’ meeting
Objective: to assess and distribute 200 million USD Fund aimed to support implementation of small technical assistance development projects presented by various international organizations (formal and INGOs) addressing one of the global challenges
Each student plays 2 roles:
One of the G-20 country representative
Representative of the IO (formal or INGO), presenting a development project proposal for financing.
chooses one of the G-20 countries (or one of the Permanent invitees from the list) to represent,
studies at home the foreign policy and international development assistance policy priorities of the selected G20 donor country or the IO;
Students from groups IO-2 and FRS: assemble in groups of 2 people (no more!), Students from group IO-1 work individually:
choose one of the global development challenges from the list (no duplications!),
choose any international organization of their preference which operates to help resolve the respective challenge,
prepare a short 5 min ppt presentation with the concrete OWN project proposal (with cost estimate) on behalf of the chosen IO, describing, how his/hers international organization will help address the chosen global development problem by means of this project.
Presentation limit - 4 slides (title slide, 1 slide with description of development challenge, 1 slide with presentation of the IO, 1 slide with the proposed project description: project title, objectives, requested amount of finance and expense items, and the expected outputs of the project)
Each student prepares a two-sided table plate out of A4 piece of paper with the name of the G20 country on one side, and the name of the chosen IO – on the other side.
Starostas of each Group:
Collect and present on the eve of the game to the instructor and to all students the following table:
№.Student Name.G20 country.Development Challenge.International Organization.Comments
Simulation Game: G-20 countries’ meeting
ORDER OF CONDUCT
Each student while sitting at the table performs the role of the country representative and puts in front a two-sided table plate out of A4 piece of paper with the name of the country;
Each team of two students representing a grant seeking IO, makes a short 5 min ppt presentation of the project with no more that 4 ppt slides; while speaking students take their table plates and put the IO name at the front;
All other students in their roles as the G-20 countries ask questions and make notes on the value of the projects for their countries’ priorities;
After the presentations, each G20 country representative speaks up listing top 5 project proposals that he/she suggests to finance, providing arguments based on the respective G20 country’s international development priorities;
The independent moderator counts proposals, and those with majority of voices, receive funding.
Each of the winning proposal team member will be granted additional 3 points to the overall scoring in the course.
END of MEETING
G20 countries and Permanent Invitees
G20 member countries
12) South Korea
15) Saudi Arabia
16) South Africa
18) The United Kingdom
19) The United States
20) The European Union (EU)
Energy security and green growth
Sustainable and balanced growth
Anti-corruption and transparency
Employment and social inclusion
Trade and investment
10. Climate change
11. Conflict prevention and security
12. Human rights
13. Infrastructure development
14. Education for all
15. Nuclear non proliferation
16. COVID19 and other communicable deceases
17. Post war reconstruction
18. Water and Sanitation
19. Disaster Risk Management and Prevention
20. Preserving wild life
Заседание стран доноров по обсуждению острых проблем развития и распределению денежных средств на реализацию пилотных проектов технической помощи для решения этих проблем.
Организация деловой игры:
Каждый студент играет две роли:
роль международной организации, которая презентует ту или иную проблему и конкретный проект, который может помочь решению проблемы, и просит денег,
представителя страны из «Двадцатки», которая вместе с другими странами будет принимать решение давать денег или нет.
Когда студент представляет проблему для финансирования – он межд. организация, когда сидит за столом – страна G20.
При подготовке к семинару, каждый студент:
объединяется в группу из 2х человек,
они совместно выбирают одну проблему из приведенного в слайде списка, а также самостоятельно определяют организацию (МО или МНПО), от лица которой они разрабатывают проектное предложение по теме и его представляют на заседании Двадцатки,
страну Двадцатки. Для визуализации просьба сделать настольные таблички с названием выбранной страны с одной стороны и организации - с другой, из бумаги А4.
2) На заседании каждая организация (студенты) по очереди презентует конкретный проект, предлагаемый в помощь решения проблемы (не больше 5 слайдов и 5 минут выступления), затемчлены Двадцатки задают вопросы,
3) В процессе всех презентаций студенты – как представлители стран «20» составляют свой короткий список 5 наиболее понравившихся и достойных финансирования проектов,
4) В завершающей части каждый студент-страна выступает и говорит, какие проекты готов поддержать и почему.