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Lecture 1 introduction to international organizations, слайд 1
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA) Undergraduate (BA) Program in International Relations 36 hours’ interactive course Spring 2022
Instructor: Tatyana Gennadijevna Leonova: tleonova1203@gmail.com
Lecture 1 Introduction to International Organizations February 11, 2022

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Course Structure and Operating Modalities
Four twinned lectures (via Zoom) Four twinned interactive F2F seminars (including written home tasks, simulation exercises and small group work) One written research assignment (essay) Final Assessment: IO groups: oral exam FRS group: written test with multiple choice questions)

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Online lectures’ operating modalities
Attendance - “starostas” of each group take account of attendance and send me the lists after the lecture; Asking questions – raise a virtual hand or write in the Chat; Answering questions – “jump in”, raise a virtual hand or write in the Chat; While speaking turn on your camera!

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Evaluation and Scores:
Of Total 100 points: Written research assignment (essay): 14% (max 14p.) Seminars’ attendance, written home task preparation and class participation: 56% (max 56p.=14p.x4 seminars), of which for each seminar out of max 14 points: 2p. for attendance, up to 6p. for written home task preparation and submission, up to 6p. for participation and presentations; Final oral exam and test: 30% (30p.) Groups 1&2: oral exam; Group FRS: zachet (passing score 55)

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Why we study international organizations?
They are everywhere: there are many more international organizations in the world than the sovereign states; The Union of International Associations (UIA), publisher of the Yearbook of International Organizations, in 2018 came up with the definitive directory of more than 75,000 governmental and non-governmental nonprofit organizations worldwide, including both active and dormant entities; still numbers depend on methods of classification; https://uia.org/ IOs are important and sometimes central to many aspects of international life: e.g. United Nations as the “juridical statehood” for sovereign states - e.g. empirical statehood –Palestine)

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Course Objectives
The theory and practice of IOs is the filed of study that is at the intersection of international law and politics, international relations and economics => the core approach is inter-disciplinary The course aims to offer a comprehensive introduction to the theory, history and contemporary practice of international organizations. Specifically, the course will: introduce the typology of international organizations based on the geographic coverage, stakeholder representation, objectives and governance structure; acquaint with major international organizations – from global to regional and sector/subject specific, and with their core activities; get students understand the role of IOs in global governance and the challenges they face; make students learn, think critically and present their views and arguments about how these organizations function and implement their projects - through interactive group exercises including group reports, simulation and brainstorming

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Key Questions to be Addressed in the Course
Why and how international organizations (IOs) emerged and why do they exist now? What are the controversies and issues around the existence and functioning of the IOs in the context of the international relations theory? Do IOs indeed help solve global/regional problems? What are the main challenges in operation of the IOs?

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Lecture 1 Introduction to International Organizations: What are IOs? What they deal with?
Concepts and Definitions Typology of IOs Theories and Practice of IOs Global Problems and IOs (MDGs and SDGs)

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Concepts and Definitions
“No scientific field can advance far if the participants do not share a common understanding of key terms” 1986; Elinor Ostrom, Nobel Laureate in Economics “International Organizations” – both words in the course title are tricky and not that straightforward

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International …
International vs interstate International vs intergovernmental Intergovernmental vs interstate
Former approach: International = intergovernmental = interstate (diplomacy, agreement, relations) –> an activity conducted between sovereign states and their governmental representatives
Current approach: International -> activities between individuals and groups in one state and individuals and groups in another state, as well as intergovernmental relations. In which: Trans-national – activities between individuals and groups in one state and individuals and groups in another state Trans-governmental – activities between branches of gov’t agencies
Keohane and Nye, 1971, Clive Archer, 2014

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Organization(s)
What is “international organization” from the conceptual prospective? “International organization (in singular) is a process; international organizations (in plural) are representative aspects of the phase in this process which has been reached at a given time” 1956, Inis Claude (one of the founding fathers of the theory of IOs) An international organization (as a noun) – is a particular instantiation (result) of the previous process of international organization which has been going on for some time before this resulting entity has been founded Examples?

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International Organizations and International Institutions
Are they synonyms? “The original post-1945 focus was on international organizations, concrete entities with a physical presence – names, addresses, etc. … This rather narrow conceptualization was later broadened with a focus on regimes, defined as “principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures around which actor expectations converge in a given issue-area.” Christian Reus-Smit and Duncan Snidal, eds., Oxford Handbook on International Relations (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2008)

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International Organizations vs International Institutions
International Organizations
International Institutions
formal instantiations (implementations) of certain aspects of international institutions, that come with specific attributes such as buildings and bureaucracies, and budgets. International organizations refer to those groups of people and the governance they create in an effort to coordinate collective action for the pursuit of specific international public or private or mixed services (goods) (e.g. enforce international laws- Int. Court of Justice –ICJ; FIFA-football)
International regimes or set of explicit and implicit principles, norms and agreements – i.e. “rules of the game” in international politics, economics, trade and finance, consisting of: the formal legal rules (such as international law) and formal agreements (GATT) the informal social norms (such as international ethics) that govern individual behavior, and structure social interactions among states and other actors on the international stage

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Why, When and Where IOs emerge?
The process of international organization kicks off, and different forms (representative aspects) of such organization come to life at particular points of time, when certain national interests or problems (economic, civic, social, security, environmental, etc.. ) start transcending national borders Examples - ?

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Examples:
International organizations are created on the basis of interests and concerns which transcend interstate borders Universal Postal Union Universal Postal Union, UPU: Worldwide postal organization International Red Cross/Red Crescent International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) - Home International Labour Organization International Labour Organization - ILO Web site World Health Organization WHO | World Health Organization Greenpeace Greenpeace Amnesty International Amnesty International - Working To Protect Human Rights Worldwide Medecins Sans Frontieres/Doctors Without Borders Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) U.S. Web Site North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO Official Homepage

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Definitions:
by OECD Statistical Glossary: International organizations are: entities established by formal political agreements between their members that have the status of international treaties; their existence is recognized by law in their member countries; they are not treated as resident institutional units of the countries in which they are located. (definition from the international legal prospective)

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Definitions:
A formal international organization must: consist of at least two qualified members of the international system; have been created by a formal instrument of agreement between the governments of national states; hold more or less regular plenary sessions at intervals not greater than a decade have a permanent secretariat with a permanent headquarters which performs ongoing tasks. Michael Wallace and David Singer (1970) IOs are… formal, continuous structures established by agreement between members… from two or more sovereign states with the aim of pursuing the common interest of membership Clive Archer (2001) (organizational structure prospective)

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Types of international organizations
(1) By membership type (who are the members): States: Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) Global (UN, IMF) Regional (NAFTA, EU, NATO) Investors: Transnational corporations (TNCs) Individuals/Legal bodies: International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs): e.g. Red Cross, FIFA, etc, Civil society organizations (CSOs) Legitimate Illegitimate (terrorist groups, organized crime structures)

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Types of international organizations
(2) By focus of activity: - International security - Trade and investment - Economic development - Human rights - Social problems - Protection of the environment - Political agendas - Others - UNIVERSAL (all of the above) – The United Nations system

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Types of international organizations
(3) By limits to states’ sovereignty: International – based on cooperation among sovereign states on common issues, its resolutions are advisory, and not always obligatory; Supranational – could adopt binding and obligatory decisions for legal bodies and individuals in member countries

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International vs Supranational
What is the European Union? organization or institution international or supranational

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Types of international organizations
4) By Principles of Entry : Open – any country/legal/physical body could join; Closed – by invitation of the founding members (e.g. NATO, ASEAN, others) 5) By Geographical coverage: Global (UN, WB, IMF, International Associations) Regional (Organization of Gulf(African) states, APEC) Cross-regional, based on a particular criteria, subject matter (Organization of Islamic Conference - OIC, Organization of petroleum exporting Countries – OPEC)

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Types of international organizations
6) By Type of Establishment Agreement: formed on the basis of international treaties, ratified by member countries; formed on the basis of joint statements, declarations (BRICS, G20); 7) By type of structure/ bureaucracy: formal (developed) structures, offices, secretariats, Boards, permanent staff; simple structures (small rotating secretariats, no physical headquarters)

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International Organizations

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Theory of International Organizations
Theoretical framework and underpinnings of the IO analysis have several streams/schools differing in their approach as regards: positioning IOs within the international “power&politics” framework who is considered to be the main actor in international politics Main schools of thought: Realism - political aspect of IOs Liberalism (internationalism) –legal aspect of IOs Constructivism (universalism) – social aspect of IOs

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Theory of IOs: Realism
Realism – “skeptical” view on IOs: The ultimate arbiter of outcomes in international relations is power. Power drives the politics. States (countries) are the key international actors with the most power since they control most of the planet’s military power. IOs do not have such power. IOs just reflect the existing balance of power and the interests of powerful states. Hence, IOs are axillary in the international politics as they function to the benefit and in the interest of most powerful states. (also called the “system analysis” scientific stream of thought)

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Theory of IOs - Liberalism
Liberalism – optimistic/idealistic view on IOs: the approach is based on the international law prospective (rules, regimes, agreements) rather than on the study of power&politics (“institutional analysis” school of thought) it sees states in international society as people in domestic society. People are generally following the rules and laws established in their domestic society. So do the states in international society. Hence, IOs become the expressions of the rules that govern international society. IOs are important because they regulate relations among states. IOs are important institutes of international governance, enabling dialogue and development of new international institutions (norms, rules) IOs are fundamentally cooperative since they arise only with the consent of all actors (states)

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Theory of IOs: Constructivism
Constructivism – “global governance” prospective view on IOs: differs fundamentally from the previous two as it is not state-centric the focus on complexity of international relations and increasingly diminishing roles of sovereign states in global governance sees states as increasingly irrelevant in the face of a developing global society, a global society of people rather than of states considers that much of the international politics is shaped based on the ideas (perceptions) of people and states about themselves and the world around them (ideas about “ally” and “enemy”) IOs are more important as expressions of, and the creators of global civil society than they are as regulators of relations among states IOs should be studied as partial replacements for states rather than as mediators among states

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Hurd, Ian: International Organizations: Politics, Law, Practice. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020)
The main problems of international economics and international politics are at some level also problems of the international organization. As interdependence increases, the importance of international organizations increases with it. We find international organizations in one form or another at the heart of all of the political and economic challenges of the twenty-first century. From international credit markets to endangered species to war crimes and torture, today’s leading controversies all involve some measure of international cooperation and commitment, managed through formalized international organizations (IOs). Some IOs work well and some work hardly at all; some need reform, some need abolishing, and some need strengthening. To understand how the world works requires understanding the politics, powers, and limits of international organizations. p.1-2

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Why Interdependence exists?
Globalization -  the integration of economies, industries, markets, cultures and policy-making around the world … (def. by Financial Times) In the more recent past (end of XX century) , globalization was primarily focused on the economic side of the world, such as trade, foreign direct investment and international capital flows; In XXI century the term has been expanded to include a broader range of areas and activities such as culture, media, technology, socio-cultural, political, and even biological factors, e.g. climate change. Question: could globalization be reversed?

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Global Governance
Governance refers to the different ways that organizations, institutions, businesses, and governments manage their affairs. Governance is the act (process) of governing, and thus involves the application of laws and regulations, but also of customs, ethical standards and norms. Good governance means that affairs are managed well, not that the laws, regulations or norms are themselves necessarily “good”. Global governance refers to the way in which global affairs are managed. As there is no global government, global governance typically involves a range of actors including states, as well as regional and international organizations. However, a single organization may nominally be given the lead role on an issue, for example the World Trade Organization in world trade affairs. Thus global governance is thought to be an international process of consensus-forming which generates guidelines and agreements that affect national governments and international corporations. http://www.who.int/trade/glossary/story038/en/

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Key 'gaps' in global governance
Three major discussions: The jurisdictional gap, between the increasing need for global governance in many areas – e.g. such as health, climate, nuclear threat - and the lack of an authority with the power, or jurisdiction, to take action (challenges in the international law enforcement) The incentive gap, between the need for international cooperation and the motivation to undertake it. (What are the motives NOT to cooperate internationally?) The participation gap, which refers to the fact that in the past international cooperation was primarily the affair of governments, leaving civil society groups on the sides of policy-making. However, in XXI century the globalization of communication patterns (new IT revolution, proliferation of social media) facilitates development of global civil society movements.

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Practicing Global Governance by countries…
How this process of international organization, during which sovereign states start getting into groups to coordinate their national policies and jointly develop some unified policies and rules in the international landscape, is called? MULTILATERALISM is the practice of coordinating national policies in groups of three or more states 2005, Robert Keohane After Hegemony: Cooperation and discord in the World Economy => The study of international organizations in the contemporary international system is closely related to the practice of multilateralism in its various forms and “representative aspects”

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Main Issues in operation of IOs:
Key questions to explore: (1) What are the obligations that countries commit to when they join the organization? (WTO) (2) Do states – members of IOs - in practice comply with these obligations? (WB and Russia sanctions); (3) What powers of enforcement does the organization have? (UN Security Council; EU, WTO); Limits (pathologies) of international organizations: Authority of IOs Legitimacy Efficacy/effectiveness of IOs’ programs (IMF, World Bank)

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Millennium Development Goals
At the Millennium Summit in September 2000 the largest gathering of world leaders in history adopted the UN Millennium Declaration, committing their nations to a new global partnership to reduce extreme poverty and setting out a series of time-bound targets, with a deadline of 2015, that have become known as the Millennium Development Goals. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the world's time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions-income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion-while promoting gender equality, education, and environmental sustainability. They are also basic human rights - the rights of each person on the planet to health, education, shelter, and security. MDGs consisted of 8 goals, 18 targets and 48 indicators

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https://www.youtube.com/attribution_link?a=zlPu1TRCrG10nZul&u=/watch%3Fv%3D5_hLuEui6ww%26feature%3Dem-share_video_user

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Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 169 targets are broader in scope and go further than the MDGs by addressing the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development that works for all people. The goals cover the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic growth, social inclusion and environmental protection. Building on the success and momentum of the MDGs, the new global goals cover more ground, with ambitions to address inequalities, economic growth, decent jobs, cities and human settlements, industrialization, oceans, ecosystems, energy, climate change, sustainable consumption and production, peace and justice. The new Goals are universal and apply to all countries, whereas the MDGs were intended for action in developing countries only. A core feature of the SDGs is their strong focus on means of implementation—the mobilization of financial resources—capacity-building and technology, as well as data and institutions. The new Goals recognize that tackling climate change is essential for sustainable development and poverty eradication. SDG 13 aims to promote urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/

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https://youtu.be/u5BDIBRwQ88?list=PLKnUaRyhTxD0l5fOt4ZgxV60Jyz2tkTd-

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Written Assignment for Theme 1:
Individual Essays on the history and genesis of international institutions and organizations from precursors of modern IOs in ancient and medieval times and up to 19th century inclusive and start of 20th century (up to the League of Nations, but not describing it!!!) 3-4 pages’ structured narrative in English, with the title list, table of content, sited bibliography NO Wikipedia compilations, all work must be original All citations in the text should be put in quotation marks (“..”) and have reference in footnotes NO compilation from another and NO teaming up! Submit by March 12, 2022 Submission modalities: upload to LMS (up to March 12, 2022) and send to tleonova1203@gmail.com

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Discussion Topics for Seminar 1, part 1
Global Problems and IOs: Identifying global problems; Which international organizations address these problems? What – in your view - is the level of their efficiency in addressing them? Why some IOs fail to effectively address common problems?

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Written Home task for Seminar 1, part 2
SDGs: What Goals would you choose: Each student reviews at home all 17 SDGs and targets and: makes up a decision of 5 top priority SDGs for the world, being ready to present the arguments for such a decision; makes up a decision of 5 top priority SDGs for Russia, being ready to present arguments to back the decision Puts answers of Q1 and Q2 in the paper written format to submit to the instructor at the end of the seminar

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Specialized readings for Seminar 1
J. Samuel Barkin. International Organization: Theories and Institutions, 2006. Palgrave MacMillan, First Edition. Chapters 1-3 Staying Sane in a Crumbling World. The Valdai Club Report, 2020: https://valdaiclub.com/a/reports/staying-sane-in-a-crumbling-world/ The new world disorder. The Economist, June 20, 2020 edition. https://www.economist.com/leaders/2020/06/18/the-new-world-disorder http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/mdg/mdg-reports.html http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals/resources.html

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Core Course Literature
Hurd, Ian: International Organizations: Politics, Law, Practice. Fourth Edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020); Archer, Clive International Organizations. (London: Routledge, 2015) Fourth edition. Armstrong, David, Lorna Lloyd and John Redmond International Organisation in World Politics. (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2010) fourth edition. J. Samuel Barkin. International Organization: Theories and Institutions, 2006. Palgrave MacMillan, First Edition. Avant, Deborah D., Martha Finnemore and Susan K. Sell (eds) Who Governs the Globe? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010). Barnett, Michael and Raymond Duvall (eds) Power in Global Governance. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005). Zartman, I. William and Saadia Touval (eds) International Cooperation: The Extents and Limits of Multilateralism. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010). Karns, Margaret P. and Karen A. Mingst. International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 2004/ Major IOs websites Specialized readings per topic
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