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    The Vikings The Anglo-Saxons The Romans The Normans The Celts

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    William the Conqueror Вильгельм Завоеватель Boadicea Королева Бодиссия Henry VIII Генрих VIII

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    Boadicea I n AD 60. the Iceni tribe led by their queen, Boadicea , revolted . She was a brave woman, and a great war leader . She had a lot of success at first. Her army burned some Roman cities and even London. The history books tell us that first she gave them poison and then took it herself, and when the Roman soldiers reached her, she was dead. There is a monument to queen Boadicea in London . The Romans wanted to catch her . She decided that death would be better for her and her two daughters .

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    King Alfred the Great He did so much that was good for the people of England that people called him Alfred the Good. While he was king, the Danes came in their boats to England and fought their way up the rivers. King Alfred and the Vikings made a treaty. They agreed that the Vikings would live in an area called the Danelaw . So the vikings settled in England and mixed with Anglo-Saxons. B y 1020 King Sweyn of Denmark became the first Danish King of England.

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    William the Conqueror In th e battle of Hastings the last Anglo-Danish king was defeated by a Norman invader, Duke William. Soon after his victory William the Conqueror was crowned as William 1. The new king brought a new law and a new language : The Norman aristocracy spoke French. He count ed all the population in England, their houses, castles and to measure their land. Later on this information was written in the famous Domesday Book

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    Robin Hood and King Richard the Lionheart Robin married Marian and they lived happily together in the Greenwood. One day all good men learn t that their King Richard had been captured and lay imprisoned in a castle in Germany. The English had to pay a big sum of money to save their king s life. When Robin learnt about the taxes, he sold half of his precious stones, rich clothes and sent all the money to London with letter from him. King Richard released from his prison wanted to know who his friend and who his enemy was. Lords and knights decided that it was a good chance to complain to the king about Robin Hood . They said that Robin had killed one sheriff and a lot of knights. But Earl de Warenne told the king who had collected the money to save the king s life .

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    England. Wales, Scotland and Ireland Ireland had been conquered by Norman lords by 1169. The King of England Henry II was afraid that his lords might become loo independent . Henry II made Dublin, the old Viking town, the capital of his new colony. Later on, Henry I I s grandson Edward I took from Ireland as much money and as many men as lie could for his wars against the Welsh and Scots. As a result, the English Crown only controlled Dublin. The Irish chiefs continued to live as they always had done, moving from place to place, and eating outside, a habit they only gave up in the sixteenth century. The Anglo-Irish lords, on the other hand, built strong stone castles, as they had done in Wales. But they also became almost completely independent from the English Crown, and some became more Irish than the Irish .

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    England , Wales , Scotland and Ireland The conquest of Wales took place during the beginning of Edward l s reign. The Welsh were very poor W hen Llewelyn ap Grul Tyd. prince of Gwynedd claimed to be independent lord of Wales. Edward 1 attacked Wales from the sea as well as from the land, and at last succeeded in conquest by starvation . Thus in I2S4 Edward united west Wales with England. The Welsh needed a new prince, and at a public ceremony at Coronation Edward I made his own baby son (later Edward II) Prince of Wales, From that time the eldest son of the ruling king or queen has usually been made Prince of Wales

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    England , Wales, Scotland and Ireland By the eleventh century there was only one king of Scots . in 1286 King Alexander III of Scotland died. De Bailiofs four years as king were not happy. Then Edward invaded Scotland again, and captured all the main Scottish castles. During the invasion Edward stole the sacred Stone of Destiny Edward s treatment of the Scots led to the creation of a popular resistance movement. At first it was led by William Wallace , a Norman-Scottish knig ht. Edward I captured Wallace and execu ted him, putting his head on a pole on London Bridge. Edward tried to make Scotland and a part of England, as he had done with Wales. A new leader took up the struggle. This was Robert Bruce, who had compel with John de Bailiol for the throne. After Edward's death Bruce began a king of the Scots.

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    William Wallace he was the second son of Sir Malcolm Wallace. He was about twenty years old when the English King came and the dark days began for Scotland . His whole life had been spent in lighting for his country's freedom . I n every Scottish heart but in every heart that thrills at the thought of freedom.

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    EDWARD I (1272-1307) Respected as a strong king and a good soldier. Beat the Welsh and gave them his baby son to be their prince — the Prince of Wales. Edward beat the Scots in battle so many times he became known as the Hammer of the Scots . He stole their coronation stone — the Stone of Scone. It s still in Westminster Abbey and has been used for every coronation to this day.

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    EDWARD III (1327-1377) Fought against the Scots and the French but not at the same time. Called himself the king of France even though he wasn't. The war with France went on for a long time, so long that King Edward died after reigning for 50 years.

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    The Age of Chivalry Edward III and his eldest son, the Black Prince, became symbols of the code of chivalry Once, a lady at court dropped her garter and Edward III noticed some of his courtiers laughing at her. He picked up the garter and tied it to his own leg, saying in French: "Honi soil qui mal у pense, which meant. Let him be ashamed who sees wrong in it. From this strange yet probably true story, the Order of the Garter was founded in 1348. Edward chose as members of the order twenty-four knights . They met once a year on St George s Day at Windsor Castle . The custom is still followed, and Honi Soil Qui Mal Y Pense is still the motto of the royal family, which can be seen on the Royal coat of arms.

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    KING ARTHUR Arthur was a famous king of England When King Uther who was Arthur s father died, every lord in England wanted to be king. H e ruled the kingdom well. King Arthur married Queen Guinevere ( the daughter of King Leodogran ) King Arthur hurt Sir Mordred under his shield. When Sir Mordred realized that it was his death-wound, he struck the king's helmet such a mighty blow that his sword wounded King Arthur's head. Some say that King Arthur lives still, with his knights and companions, in an enchanted castle, and that he shall come again to rule. Others declare that on his tomb is written: H ER E A R T H U R LIES. KIN G O NCE AND KIN G TO BE.

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    Henry Vlll A fter his coronation Henry married his brother s widow, a beautiful Spanish princess, Catherine of Aragon but she failed to give him a son . Henry divorced Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, but she didn't give him a son either only daughter. H is third wife, Jane Seymour, who did give him a son, but died twelve days later. All in all Henry V I11 had six wives. King Henry VIII left three children: Mar y by Catherine of Aragon, Elizabeth by Anne Boleyn and Edward , the Prince of Wales, by Jane Seymour. Got rid of the Catholic Church in England and made himself head of the new' Church. That gave him the chance to divorce his first wife and also to steal the riches of the Catholic Church.

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    MARY I (1553-1558) Married the King of Spain, then got England drawn int Spain's battles with France. Her unpopular marriage cause» an English rebellion led by Thomas Wyatt. Wyatt lost the fir s t battle and was executed. Fanatical Catholic — had Protestants burned if they refuse to return to the Catholic faith. A sickly and unhappy woman who went down in history i "Bloody Mary , though she wasn't cruel in herself. She w as just trying to do what she thought right.

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    Elizabeth I At the age of twenty-five Elizabeth became the Queen of England to the great delight of the people. In fact Elizabethan age is called the golden age of England. It was the time of English Renaissance . In March, 1603 Elizabeth died. She never married and was childless. Mary Stuart the Queen of Scots, a catholic. She was a granddaughter of Henry VII by his daughter Margaret. The relationship of two cousins has fascinated people . Marry married an English nobleman Lord Darnley. The choice was made for her by Elizabeth. Mary was suspected to order her husband murder . Mary Stuart was executed on 7 February 1587 aged forty-four.

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    Норманны Вильгельм I 1066 по 1087 Вильгельм II 1087 по 1100 Генрих I 1100 по 1135 Стивен 1135 по 1154 Генрих II 1154 по 1189 Ричард I 1189 по 1199 Иоанн Генрих III 1199 по 1216 1216 по1272 Плантагенеты Эдуард I 1272 по1307 Эдуард II 1307по1327 Эдуард III 1327 по1377 Ричард II 1377по1399 Генрих IV 1399 по1413 Генрих V 1413по1422 Генрих VI 1422по1461 1470по1471 Эдуард IV 1461по1470 1470по1483 Эдуард V 1483 Ричард Ш 1483по1485 William the Conqueror Вильгельм Завоеватель Тюдоры Генрих VII 1485 по1509 Генрих VIII 1509по1547 Эдуард VI 1547по1553 Мария I 1553по1558 Елизавета I 1558по1603 Стюарты Яков I 1603по1625 Карл I 1625по1649 Республика 1649по1660 Карл II 1660по1685 Яков II 1685по1688 Вильгельм III 1689по1702 и Мария II 1689по1694 Анна 1702по1714 Henry VIII Генрих VIII

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    «Её Высочайшее Величество Елизавета Вторая, Божьей милостью Королева Соединённого Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии и других её Царств и Территорий, Глава Содружества, Защитница Веры, Самодержца Орденов Рыцарства»

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