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“Sources of energy”
Student: Perevoshchikov A. I
Teacher: Aituganova J. I
Aim and tasks
1)To tell about main natural sources of energy
To show where we use certain energy sources
To tell what kind of energy we use more often than others
To reveal the importance of rational use of energy
We use natural sources of energy for many purposes, ranging from such large-scale applications as the provision of electricity to a whole city down to using the small amount of energy from match to light the barbeque. Where do we get this energy from? There are many sources of energy available to us, some of which are more suited for a particular purpose than others.
Our main natural sources of energy are summarized below.
Heat is evolved when wood burns. Apart from the sun and localized phenomena such as hot water springs, wood was the earliest common source of warmth. Since ancient times, people use heat from the wood to heat their houses.
Probably the two most common uses of the energy of moving air have been the propulsion of sailing ships and windmills.
As people have begun to realize that supplies of coal and oil will not used be available forever - at least at reasonable prices - more attention is being paid to supplementing our energy usage with the energy of winds.
Moving water in rivers has long been used to provide the energy for transporting goods in barges and in other ways.
Another important use of the energy of rivers is the production of electricity. To produce electricity from rivers, people build special facilities like a hydroelectric power station.
Our existence depends on energy that is provided daily by the sun. For example warm from the sun warms our planet and plants would not grow without light from the sun. The sun has an importance as an energy source far over and above our daily uses of heat and light reaching the earth: non of the energy sources mentioned so far could exist but for the presence of the sun.
The carbon compounds comprising crude oil can provide energy by combustion. During refining of crude oil mixtures of substances suitable for particular purposes are produced. The industrialized countries of the world, including Australia, have become heavily depend on the availability of petroleum products, especially as transport fuels.
The main component of natural gas is methane. Natural gas can provide energy by combustion of the methane and other carbon compounds. This energy source is becoming increasingly important in Australia.
Natural gas is widely used as fuel in homes for heating, water heating and cooking.
Heat energy is obtained by burning coal in air. Before petroleum became freely available, coal was used as the source of energy for the engines in trains and ships. Petroleum products have replaced coal for this purpose although, as the limitations of crude oil supplies have recognized, some coal-fired ships been built recently. Coal is the main energy source used for production of electricity in many countries.
Other sources of energy
The above list of energy sources is by no means complete. Some natural sources which have not been important in the past, but which may be used more in future include the following:
Ocean waves could supply a continuous supply of energy;
Ocean tides could be a source of much energy if engineers can develop methods to obtain it economically;
Ethanol, produced by fermentation of cane sugar, potatoes and other vegetable matter can be used as a supplement for petrol in cars;
Vegetable oils, such as linseed oil and safflower oil can be used instead of diesel fuel in tractors.
And any chemical reaction that releases heat or light is potential source of energy.
Английский язык для технических специальностей : учебное пособие / И. М. Мулюков, И. А. Абдуллин. - Казань : КГЭУ, 2010. - 134 с.