Презентация - Fares zemmeli

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Fares zemmeli
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Fares Zemmeli

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plan
Introduction: What is animal cloning Animal Can clone History of cloning: Advantages of cloning: Disadvantages of cloning: Conclusion:

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INTRODUCTION
Animal cloning is one of the scientific advances that’s created the most controversy in recent times. However, the possibility of getting transgenic animals from cloning has played a key role in current medicine. In this project , we’ll explain exactly what cloning is, how scientists create transgenic animals and what the advantages and disadvantages of this technique are.

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What is animal cloning ?
Animal cloning, also known as transgenesis, is a procedure through which genetic information is transferred from one organism to another. When we’re talking about transgenic animals, we’re referring to the transfer of DNA.

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Can all animals be cloned?
In theory, scientists could clone every living being that has a genetic code. So, all animals, even humans, could undergo transgenesis. To date, scientists have used different species to test animal cloning in laboratories. From small insects and parasites, to fish, birds and reptiles, and even mammals such as goats, monkeys, pigs, sheep, rats, and rabbits. However, scientists most commonly use mice for transgenic experiments. This is mostly due to their small size, easy handling and how well they adapt to life in captivity.

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History of cloning
Dolly the sheep is probably the most famous transgenic animal in history .They cloned her in 1996. She was the first animal that scientists cloned by transferring the genetic material of the nucleus of adult cells. Despite the popularity of the case, Dolly wasn’t the first animal to be cloned in the history of science. It was actually frogs who underwent the first process of animal cloning in the 50s.

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Advantages of cloning animal
Preserving Endangered Species: Cloning techniques can also make the creation of gene banks viable , This would prevent many living beings from disappearing from the ecosystem due to human impact. It would improve our food chain supplies:  The United Nations estimates that more than 10 billion people will populate the planet by the year 2050. In 2150, that figure could double to 20 billion people. The taxation on planetary food supplies would be immense.

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It can be used to increase the supply of meat and milk in the market for consumption: Animals are great sources of meat and milk people use on a daily basis. With animal cloning, the agricultural industry can be one of the beneficiaries of this scientific advancement
Aids In Medical Research:
Many different medicines and drugs are tested and developed with the use of animals. Using cloned animals, you are able to get much better and more accurate results of these tests. This is because the test subjects are all standardized and have the exact same features.

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Disadvantages of cloning animal
Abnormal Health Problems
The clones of animals tend to develop very unique health problems, many appearing directly after “birth”. This is mostly due to their genetic makeup being much older and more developed than their body is.
Alarming Failure Rates
The processes that have been developed and used to clone animals are highly insufficient and have very high failure rates. As of now, the somatic cell nuclear transfer process that is used to clone the animals only has a success rate of 0.1 percent to 2 percent.

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It goes against the normal course of nature by taking the role of God:
Using living beings for experiments has an ethical dimension. We have to debate up to what point humans, especially scientists should be interfering with nature itself, and what limits there should be.
Cloning is unethicals process :
The process of cloning is in itself immoral, through which the animal sanctity is made obsolete through its form, through the creation of cloning can create strange forms of imagination not accepted by morality .

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Conclusion
Cloning has opened many doors that could lead to remarkable medical advancements but, as with all new technologies, it will be accompanied by ethical and social dilemmas. Today’s successes will pave the road to improving efficiencies and help add to the basic understanding of our cells. Even Dolly’s creator, Ian Wilmut, is focusing less on sheep and more on understanding the mechanism of reprogramming our genetic materia.

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