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Sidelnikova Anna, Kirillov Nikolay, Darbinyan Vladimir, Belyakova Darya Form 9 “B”, Berezkina Valeria, Konopleva Darya Form 9 “A”, Askerova Sevinch Form 9 “A”
The teachers are: Galina Anatolyevna Druzhinina
Lyudmila Vasilyevna Elagina
THE History of Saratov .
Our purposes are:
To bring up the interest and love to our Motherland, to learn more about our native land.
To attention to ecological problems of our native land, especially to our great river the Volga, which has been very important for our people during centuries.
And one more important purpose is bringing up the interest and the wish to study English language.
The Foundation of the city and XVII century
After campaigns of the Russian armies on the Kazan khanate in 1552 and on the Astrakhan khanate in 1556 the Moscow kingdom received extensive territories of the Volga region. During the government of Fyodor Ivanovich it was decided to build new fortified cities on the Volga . In summer of 1586 fortress Samara, and in summer of 1589 — Tsaritsyn (nowadays Volgograd) were based. The city of Saratov was founded on 2 on July (12), 1590 by Prince Grigory Zasekin and the boyar Fyodor Turov halfway between Samara and Tsaritsyn.
The exact place of initial Saratov isn't known — it varies from modern a left-bank Anisette opposite to Uvek to Pristanny on the right coast of Volga. In winter of 1613 — 1614 the city burned down and was again reconstructed on the left coast of Volga, in the mouth of the river of Saratovka, in 1617.
In 1674, under Alexey Mikhaylovich's imperial decree "On the mountains do Saratov new", the city was postponed for the right coast of Volga, to the area of present the Museum Square. As a result the city under the name Saratov was put by the Russian voivodes three times: in 1590, 1617 both 1674, and each time on a new place. To the South from the mountain which now is called as Sokolovaya, the colonel Alexander Shel put already the third city construction on a new place in 1674. The Sokolovaya mountain is a popular place now and almost all city is visible from here.
It was considered that Saratov received the name according to Sokolova the mountain which was called in Tatar "sary tau" — "the yellow mountain". However nowadays this hypothesis is disproved as Sokolovaya never was yellow, and the wood always grew on it. There is an assumption that the name of the city occurred from the words "сар aftermaths" — "the low island" or "saryk atov" — "the hawk island". There is an assumption that Saratov received the name from Scythian-Iranian hydronim “sarat". There is also a set of hypotheses which find where smaller confirmation, than above-stated.
In the XVIII century, all state was divided into parts - provinces. Provinces the local authorities which were directly submitting to the central government operated. The position of the governor as chief of the province was entered.
The Kazan province was formed and among the other 36 cities Saratov was one of the first provinces founded in 1708.
In 1717 Saratov was among 12 cities of the new, Astrakhan province.
The first image of new right-bank Saratov was made by the Dutch traveler Cornelius de Bruin in 1707.
Advance of Saratov
The development of crafts and trade in Saratov promoted the city's growth. In fifty years of the XVIII century more than 10 thousand people lived in the city.
Development of nearby territories
Gradually the paling surrounding the city was collapsed, an earth shaft was razed to the ground, a ditch was filled up. New streets and the development began appeared.
In seventy years of the XVIII century there were 1250 houses, over 50 fish and salt barns in Saratov.
National school in Saratov
The first national school was opened in 1986 in Saratov.
It is interesting, that there were no schools in Saratov at all and there were little literate people.
National school in Saratov
Saratov was built up densely and remained generally wooden. As well as in all Russian wooden cities there were fires very often. But each time the city was quickly restored. Strong fires as if pursued the city:
1712 – Saratov burned down "all without the rest";
1738 – a strong fire;
1754 – the most part of the city burned down;
1757 – all Saratov burned down.
1712 – Saratov burned down "all without the rest"
1754 – the most part of the city burned down
At the end of seventy years the first fire team was formed. Despite of everything Saratov developed and grew.
In 1708 Saratov appeared in a zone of military operations of Country Revolt of the Don Cossacks under Kondratiy Bulavin's leadership.
Leader Kondraty Bulavin
The life in the region after the suppression of revolts became quieter.
The life in the Volga region became safer only after 1717 – 1720 the Tsaritsynsky line was built.
Voznesensko – Goryanskaya (Mikhaylo - Arkhangelsk) church
The church was built in 1835 to donations of parishioners and it was situated on the crossing of streets Moscow and Police (October). It was destroyed in 1935. And in 1939 the living house ) was constructed on this place (Moskovskaya St., 32).
The Theatre Square
The Theatre Square was formed at the beginning of the XX century. The Aleksandro-Nevsky chapel (in the centre) for the sake of an icon of the Mother of God "the Zhivonosny source" was constructed in 1875 according to the project of the architect A. M. Salko. On the place of the chapel destroyed in the 1930th years, the new one with the same name was constructed in 1998.
The City Boulevard
In 1824 according to the decision of the City Council the foundation of the first public garden "Lipki" began. The initial name of a garden was Aleksandrovsky Boulevard.
The stone building of a mosque was built in 1834-1836 and it was situated on Nizhney (Tatarskoy) Street. In 1938 the mosque was closed. The building nowadays doesn’t exist.
The City Council in Saratov
The two-storied building of the City Council was solemnly opened on September 3, 1844. In 1902 according to the project of the Saratov city architect A. M. Salko the third floor was built. The fourth floor of the building was added in 1970 according to the project of the architect L. E. Doroshenko. It is looking now as well as it had been looking many years ago. (Moskovskaya St., 35).
General view of "old" and "new" Saratov
Saratov is the multipurpose center with numerous industrial, cultural, educational institutions. In historical center there are a lot of buildings such as City Administration and areas (a complex of the buildings built at the end of XIX — the middle of the XX century); theaters: the Opera and ballet (1875), Drama (1967), Young viewers theatre (1918), the Conservatory (1912), the Circus (1876), the Philharmonic hall (1937); museums: Saratov Art Museum after named after A. N. Radishchev (1885), K. A. Fedin's Museum  (building of the beginning of the XVIII century), Nikolay Chernyshevsky's memorial estate (beginning of the XIX century); the Trinity Cathedral (end of the XVII century); a large number of monuments of architecture of the end of XVIII — the beginning of the XX centuries of federal and regional value.
The total number of resident population in the city of Saratov for January 1, 2012 is 836 900 people. Saratov takes the 16th place on population number in the cities of Russia. Together with Engels and other settlements forms the agglomeration more than one million people.
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