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The history of computing technology.
Student: Khodyrev A. A.
Teacher: Aituganova Jh.I.
- Give a concept to a computer.
- Show all the stages of the development of computing technology.
- Show how computers evolved.
- Find out the emergence and subsequent development of computers.
A computer is an electronic device that works with information and data and can store, retrieve and process data, print documents.
Period of manual work
The manual period of computing automation began at the dawn of human civilization and was based on the use of body parts, primarily fingers and toes. The counting range is small. In 1658, the word "abacus" was first mentioned. And at the beginning of the 18th century, the abacus took its usual form. Only one counting field remained in them, on the needles of which ten bones were placed.
The development of mechanics in the 17th century became a prerequisite for the creation of computing devices and devices using the mechanical principle of computation. Such devices were built on mechanical elements and provided automatic transfer of the senior category. In Pascal's machine, was used a more complex scheme for transferring senior digits, which was rarely used later. Nowadays, only 8 Pascal machines have survived and only one is 10-bit. Pascal's machine marked the beginning of the mechanical stage in the development of computing technology.
Blaise Pascal, 1623 - 1662
Arithmometer of Leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz, 1646 - 1716
The prerequisites for the creation of projects at this stage were both the need for massive calculations (economics, statistics, management and planning), and the development of applied electrical engineering (electric drive and electromechanical relays), which made it possible to create electromechanical computing devices.
The first calculating and analytical complex was created in the USA by G. Hollerith in 1887 and consisted of a hand-held puncher, a sorting machine and a tabulator. In the USSR, in 1957, a relay computer (RCM-1) was built and operated until the end of 1964, mainly for solving economic problems. It recalculated the prices of goods in connection with the monetary reform of 1961.
Hollerith tabulating machine
Herman Hollerith,1860 - 1929
Babbage's Analytical Engine
Charles Babbage, 1792 -1871
1st generation of computer:
The programming process required considerable skill, good knowledge of computer architecture and its software capabilities. At the beginning of this stage, programming in computer codes (machine code) was used, then autocodes and assemblers appeared. As a rule, computers of the first generation were used for scientific and technical calculations, and the programming process itself was more reminiscent of an art, which was occupied by a very narrow circle of mathematicians, electrical engineers and physicists.
Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator
2nd generation of computer.
The creation of the first transistor in the USA in 1948 did not foreshadow a new stage in the development of electronic computers and was associated, first of all, with radio engineering. At first, it was rather a prototype of a new electronic device that required serious research and refinement. And already in 1951, William Shockley demonstrated the first reliable transistor. However, their cost was quite high, and only after the development of silicon technology, their price fell sharply, contributing to the acceleration of the miniaturization process in electronics, which also captured the electronic computers.
William Bradford Shockley (1910-1989)
3rd generation of computer:
Developed database management systems, design automation systems appear; great attention is paid to the creation of applied software packages for various purposes. New programming languages and systems continue to emerge and develop.
4th generation of computer:
The personal computer (PC) phenomenon dates back to the creation in 1965 of the first PDP-8 mini-computer, which emerged as a result of the universalization of a specialized microprocessor for controlling a nuclear reactor. The machine quickly gained popularity and became the first mass-produced computer of this class.
The first PC can be considered Altair-8800, created on the basis of the Intel-8080 microprocessor in 1974 by Edward Roberts. The computer was mailed, cost only $ 397, and was expandable with peripherals.
Henry Edward Roberts (1941-2010)