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ОБЛАСТНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ
УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ «РОСЛАВЛЬСКИЙ МЕДИЦИНСКИЙ
History of medicine
Medicine is among the most ancient of human occupations. It began as an art and gradually developed into a science over the centuries. There are 3 main stages in medicine development:
Medicine of Ancient Civilizations
Medicine of Middle Ages
Early man, like animals, was subject to illness and death. At that time medical actions were mostly a part of ceremonial rituals. The medicine-man practiced magic to help people who were ill or had a wound.
New civilizations, which developed from early tribes, began to study the human body. Magic still played an important part in treating but new practical methods were also developing. The early Indians set fractures and practiced aromatherapy.
The Chinese were pioneers of immunization and acupuncture. The contribution of the Greeks in medicine was enormous. An early leader in Greek medicine was Aesculapius. His daughters, Hygeia and Panacea gave rise to dynasties of healers (curative medicine) and hygienists (preventive medicine).
Hippocrates - the Father of Medicine (460-377 B.C)
Hippocrates was born in Greece. He was the son of a doctor. Hippocrates studied medicine and then went from town to town where he practiced the art of medicine.
It is known that he drove out the plague from Athens by lighting fires in the streets of the city.
We have his writings which are called Hippocratic collection. The collection consists of more than one hundred books. Some of his thoughts are quite modern. The Collection begins with the famous Oath.
Hippocrates was known as an excellent practitioner and a teacher of medicine. This great physician taught his pupils to examine the patient very attentively and to give him quick help.
Hippocrates freed medicine from superstition. He hated the idea that a disease was the punishment of goods.
He knew the use of many drugs and was also a good surgeon. Hippocrates set fractures and even trephined the skull.
Aristotle, the famous philosopher, called him «Hippocrates the Great».
The next stage of Medicine’s development was the Middle Ages. A very important achievement of that time was the hospital. The first ones appeared in the 15-th century in Oriental countries and later in Europe.
Another advance of the Middle Ages was the foundation of universities during 13-14-th centuries. Among other disciplines students could study medicine. During 18-th century new discoveries were made in chemistry, anatomy, biology.
The advances of that time were invention of the stethoscope (by Rene Laennec), vaccination for smallpox, discovery of anesthetics and development of immunology and scientific surgery.
The next century is rise of bacteriology. Important discoveries were made by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. The development of scientific bacteriology made possible advances in surgery: using antiseptics and control of wound infection.
Medicine in the 20-th century made enormous contribution in the basic medical sciences. These are discovery of blood groups and vitamins, invention of insulin and penicillin, practice of plastic surgery and transplantation.