Презентация - Сhemical industry

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Сhemical industry
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Сhemical industry, слайд 1

Сhemical industry
Smekhota N., Smekhota D. Group D-015

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The concept of the chemical industry What does the Chemical Industry make? History of the chemical industry Characteristics of the Chemical Industry Challenges faced by the hemicals industry Environmental issues related to chemical manufacture World-wide initiative entitled Responsible Care Companies Conclusion Sources used

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The concept of the chemical industry
Chemical industry is a branch of industry that includes the production of products from hydrocarbon, mineral and other raw materials through its chemical processing.
Chemicals have been used and processed throughout history but large scale manufacture of chemicals only began in earnest during the industrial revolution. Many professionals are employed by the Chemical Industry including, but not limited to, chemical engineers, chemists and lab technicians.

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What does the Chemical Industry make?
There are three main type of chemical that can be manufactured in industry
Speciality chemicals
Fine Chemicals
Bulk chemicals

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Commodity chemicals are a type of bulk chemical that are manufactured in order to meet the needs of global markets. The bulk chemicals industry manufacture many chemicals and products including polymers, petrochemicals and fertilizers. Bulk chemical plants have very big vessels in which chemicals are made and processed.
Bulk chemicals are those which are manufactured on a very large scale.

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Fine chemicals are complex pure chemicals that are produced in small quantities and are sold for high prices. They are made to meet a particular specification and are then used in other chemical processes to make products. Fine chemicals are often made via organic synthesis. An organic synthesis is a series of chemical reactions that are carried out in a lab, using carbon based chemicals to make a molecule or compound. Fine chemicals can also be made through bio-technical processing. This involves the use of living organisms to make chemicals. Fine chemicals are often used as a starting material for making other chemicals.

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Speciality chemicals are a type of chemical that are made on relatively small scales in batch processes. Speciality chemicals are used to make products for a variety of sectors. Types of speciality chemicals include, adhesives, cosmetic additives, flavours, fragrances, elastomers and lubricants. Speciality chemicals are a key export of the UK which contains many speciality chemicals companies, especially in the Northeast of England.

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History of the chemical industry
Long back in 7000 B.C. Some artisans from Middle East refined Alkali and Limestone and prepared glass. After this, next were the Chinese people who invented a chemical explosive named Black Powder. Then in 1965, some chemicals were produced for tanning in Massachusetts. But all these were small ventures.
Black Powder

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The first large scale chemical industry came into existence in the 19th century. In 1823, production of Soda Ash was started by a British Entrepreneur. But massive advancement in Organic Chemistry started in the last half of 19th century. These advancements enabled the chemical companies to produce synthetic dyes from coal tar. This was successfully done in the 1850s.
synthetic dyes from coal tar

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Synthetic dyes from coal tar

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In the 1890s, production of Sulfuric Acid started in Germany. In the same period, chemical industries were also producing Caustic soda and Chlorine.
Then in the 1990s came two revolutionary chemical products.
The first one was rayon, introduction of which in 1914 changed the whole scenario of the Textile Industry.
The second chemical product was synthetic fertilizers which lead to Green Revolution in the agricultural sector.
Sulfuric Acid
Caustic soda
synthetic fertilizers

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Celluloid was invented in 1869 as a result of the advanced production of plastics by the chemical companies. Then came products like Synthetic Rubber. Continuous research in Organic chemistry ultimately resulted in production of Petrochemicals from oil in the 1920s and 1930s. In the present world, this Petrochemical Industry constitutes the main portion of chemical industry in many countries. Research and Development on chemical products are even going on today and almost each day the chemical companies are coming up with new technology and new processes.

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Characteristics of the Chemical Industry:
1. The cycle of petrochemical products is relatively long, the cycle of fine chemical products is relatively short, and the production method is typical of continuous large-scale production. 2. Production type is a combination of stock production and make-to-order. 3. Products consist of many materials and many by-products. 4. The company mainly does custom-made and design-to-order and outsources more. 5. Higher confidentiality requirements for product design and BOM data, stricter permission control. 6. With a high dependence on water, oil, minerals, and other resources, saving resources is the key to reducing product costs.

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7. Many chemical raw materials are toxic and have side effects, and some materials are measured by weight instead of packaging, so there is often a big difference between the actual and the book. 8. Chemical products have a lot of by-products, complicated cost-sharing calculations, and incompetent manual work. 9. Production planning is blinded because logistics information is not shared and orders, production, procurement, and inventory are not communicated with each other promptly. 10. Due to a large number of products, it is difficult to determine the cost of the products. 11. Permissions such as BOM data are difficult to rely on manual control.

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Challenges faced by the hemicals industry
The Chemical Industry is faced with many challenges. Some of these challenges arise due to the hazardous nature of the chemicals that are being used. Hazardous chemicals must be handled carefully and disposed of in a particular way to ensure that they do not cause damage to the environment or to people. Another challenge faced by the chemicals industry, is the risks associated with manufacturing chemicals. Conditions within reactor vessels must be constantly monitored and controlled by plant operatives and chemical engineers. Accidents and disasters can happen which is why chemical manufacture is heavily monitored and regulated by bodies such as the Health and Safety Executive, in the UK. The proper disposal of chemical waste is another aspect of chemical manufacturing which must be monitored to ensure that harmful waste is not released into the environment.

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Environmental issues related to chemical manufacture
An example of a terrible environmental disaster related to the chemicals industry was the Hungary Red Mud Disaster of October 2010. During the incident a damn burst due to heavy rains. This caused the release of a toxic mudflow which travelled downstream over fields and towards towns. The water in the dam had become highly toxic and alkaline due to the release of effluent from a nearby Bauxite factory by the name of Ajka Aluminium Works. The factory was poorly regulated and should not have been releasing waste material into the reservoir. The impact of the disaster was huge, quite literally. 1 million cubic metres of waste flowed from the dam and affected 7 towns. Unfortunately, around 7000 people were impacted by the incident: 9 people died and 120 were injured. Fish and wildlife were also killed. Another result of the mudflow was the contamination of topsoil in nearby agricultural areas.

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Without clear regulations regarding the disposal of chemical waste people are put at unnecessary risk. Chemical disasters still occur today. Notable recent disasters include the Kamituga gold mine landslides in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the 2020 Ahmedabad blast, which killed twelve people. A trend in some of the more recent chemical disasters is that they have all occurred in developing nations. This could be due to the fact that health and safety regulation is not in place or is not as strict as it is in more developed nations.

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The chemical industry has a world-wide initiative entitled Responsible Care.
It began in Canada in 1984 and is practiced now in over 60 countries. It commits national chemical industry associations and companies to: Continuously improve the environmental, health, safety and security knowledge and performance of our technologies, processes and products over their life cycles so as to avoid harm to people and the environment. Use resources efficiently and minimise waste. Report openly on performance, achievements and shortcomings. Listen, engage and work with people to understand and address their concerns and expectations. Cooperate with governments and organisations in the development and implementation of effective regulations and standards, and to meet or go beyond them. Provide help and advice to foster the responsible management of chemicals by all those who manage and use them along the product chain.

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The largest corporate producers worldwide, with plants in numerous countries, are BASF, Dow, Shell, Bayer, INEOS, ExxonMobil, DuPont, SABIC, and Mitsubishi, along with thousands of smaller firms. In the U.S., there are 170 major chemical companies. They operate internationally with more than 2,800 facilities outside the U.S. and 1,700 foreign subsidiaries or affiliates operating. The U.S. chemical output is $400 billion a year. The U.S. industry records large trade surpluses and employs more than a million people in the United States alone. The chemical industry is also the second largest consumer of energy in manufacturing and spends over $5 billion annually on pollution abatement.

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In Europe, especially Germany, the chemical, plastics and rubber sectors are among the largest industrial sectors. Together they generate about 3.2 million jobs in more than 60,000 companies. Since 2000 the chemical sector alone has represented 2/3 of the entire manufacturing trade surplus of the EU.  The chemical industry has shown rapid growth for more than fifty years. The fastest growing areas have been in the manufacture of synthetic organic polymers used as plastics, fibers, and elastomers. Historically and presently, the chemical industry has been concentrated in three areas of the world, Western Europe, North America, and Japan (the Triad). The European Community remains the largest producer area followed by the U.S. and Japan.

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The traditional dominance of chemical production by the Triad countries is being challenged by changes in feedstock availability and price, labor cost, energy cost, differential rates of economic growth and environmental pressures. Instrumental in the changing structure of the global chemical industry has been the growth in China, India, Korea, the Middle East, South East Asia, Nigeria, Trinidad, Thailand, Brazil, Venezuela, and Indonesia.

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Chemical manufacture is very important to modern day life. Manufactured chemicals will be present in almost every product that you will use today: from your toothpaste to your nylon jacket, your ballpoint pen to your mobile phone; manufactured chemicals have truly infiltrated our lives.

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Sources used:
https://chembam.com/resources-for-students/industrial-chemistry/introduction-to-the-chemical-industry/ https://www.economywatch.com/history-of-chemical-industry https://www.alibabacloud.com/ru/knowledge/characteristics-of-the-chemical-industry https://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/the-chemical-industry/the-chemical-industry.html https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Chemical_industry
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